International Science Index

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Method for Assessment of Street Lighting Systems Lightning Susceptibility
Street and area lighting systems can be damaged by lightning activity in their vicinity. This damage can occur as a result of a direct strike to a pole or luminaire, surges resulting from a strike to power lines feeding the circuits powering the lighting system, and induced surges on underground power lines (this is the most likely scenario). The session addresses each of these scenarios considering the cases where there is no lightning and surge protection provided on the poles and with varying levels of surge protection installed. In order to provide protection against direct strikes, a lightning protection system should be installed must this is not often the case even if a lighting pole acts as a lightning rod. Most of the problems will arise on other poles from surges generated either by the pole hit by lightning (this one is lost). As a result, this discussion focuses mainly on surges and the risk of loss of service to the public (R2) in accordance with IEC Standard 62305-2, Edition 2. The analysis will focus on determining the sensitivity of lighting systems due to overvoltages and the statistical benefit to survivability gained by the installation of surge protective measures. Specific examples are discussed, based on a comparison of systems incorporating high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps versus lighting systems incorporating LED technologies. The assessment also addresses an economic analysis based on the cost of the damaged material and expenses related to the repairs required to restore the required service. Based on the assumptions made in the examples, a simplified method has been developed to determine the benefit of an assessment based on the lightning ground flash density, type of technology used, and length of cabling of lighting system.
Analysis of Standard Tramway Surge Protection Methods Based on Real Cases
The study is based on lightning and surge standards mainly the EN series 62305 for facility protection, EN series 61643 for Low Voltage Surge Protective Devices, High Voltage surge arrester standard en 60099-4 and the traction arrester standards namely EN 50526-1 and 50526-1 dealing respectively with railway applications fixed installations D.C. surge arresters and voltage limiting devices. The more severe stress for tramways installations is caused by direct lightning on the catenary line. In such case, the surge current propagates towards the various poles and sparkover the insulators leading to a lower stress. If the impact point is near enough, a significant surge current will flow towards the traction surge arrester that is installed on the catenary at the location the substation is connected. Another surge arrester can be installed at the entrance of the substation or even inside the rectifier to avoid insulation damages. In addition, surge arresters can be installed between + and – to avoid damaging sensitive circuits. Based on disturbances encountered in a substation following a lighting event, the engineering department of RATP has decided to investigate the cause of such damage and more generally to question the efficiency of the various possible protection means. Based on the example of a recent tramway line the paper present the result of a lightning study based on direct lightning strikes. As a matter of fact, the induced surges on the catenary are much more frequent but much less damaging. First, a lightning risk assessment is performed for the substations that takes into account direct lightning and induced lightning both on the substation and its connected lines such as the catenary. Then the paper deals with efficiency of the various surge arresters is discussed based on field experience and calculations. The efficiency of the earthing system used at the bottom of the pole is also addressed based on high frequency earthing measurement. As a conclusion, the paper is making recommendations for an enhanced efficiency of existing protection means.
Performance Enhancement of Hybrid Racing Car by Design Optimization
Environmental pollution and shortage of conventional fuel are the main concerns in the transportation sector. Most of the vehicles use an internal combustion engine (ICE), powered by gasoline fuels. This results into emission of toxic gases. Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powered by electric machine and ICE is capable of reducing emission of toxic gases and fuel consumption. However to build HEV, it is required to accommodate motor and batteries in the vehicle along with engine and fuel tank. Thus, overall weight of the vehicle increases. To improve the fuel economy and acceleration, the weight of the HEV can be minimized. In this paper, the design methodology to reduce the weight of the hybrid racing car is proposed. To this end, the chassis design is optimized. Further, attempt is made to obtain the maximum strength with minimum material weight. The best configuration out of the three main configurations such as series, parallel and the dual-mode (series-parallel) is chosen. Moreover, the most suitable type of motor, battery, braking system, steering system and suspension system are identified. The racing car is designed and analyzed in the simulating software. The safety of the vehicle is assured by performing static and dynamic analysis on the chassis frame. From the results, it is observed that, the weight of the racing car is reduced by 11 % without compromising on safety and cost. It is believed that the proposed design and specifications can be implemented practically for manufacturing hybrid racing car.
Experimental Verification of On-Board Power Generation System for Vehicle Application
The usage of renewable energy sources is increased day by day to overcome the dependency on fossil fuels. The wind energy is considered as a prominent source of renewable energy. This paper presents an approach for utilizing wind energy obtained from moving the vehicle for cell-phone charging. The selection of wind turbine, blades, generator, etc. is done to have the most efficient system. The calculation procedure for power generated and drag force is shown to know the effectiveness of the proposal. The location of the turbine is selected such that the system remains symmetric, stable and has the maximum induced wind. The calculation of the generated power at different velocity is presented. The charging is achieved for the speed 30 km/h and the system works well till 60 km/h. The model proposed seems very useful for the people traveling long distances in the absence of mobile electricity. The model is very economical and easy to fabricate. It has very less weight and area that makes it portable and comfortable to carry along. The practical results are shown by implementing the portable wind turbine system on two-wheeler.
Effect of Solvents in the Extraction and Stability of Anthocyanin from the Petals of Caesalpinia pulcherrima for Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has become a significant research area due to their fundamental and scientific importance in the area of energy conversion. Synthetic dyes as sensitizer in DSSC are efficient and durable but they are costlier, toxic and have the tendency to degrade. Natural sensitizers contain plant pigments such as anthocyanin, carotenoid, flavonoid, and chlorophyll which promote light absorption as well as injection of charges to the conduction band of TiO2 through the sensitizer. But, the efficiency of natural dyes is not up to the mark mainly due to instability of the pigment such as anthocyanin. The stability issues in vitro are mainly due to the effect of solvents on extraction of anthocyanins and their respective pH. Taking this factor into consideration, in the present work, the anthocyanins were extracted from the flower Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. pulcherrimma) with various solvents and their respective stability and pH values are discussed. The usage of citric acid as solvent to extract anthocyanin has shown good stability than other solvents. It also helps in enhancing the sensitization properties of anthocyanins with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods. The IPCE spectra show higher photovoltaic performance for dye sensitized TiO2nanorods using citric acid as solvent. The natural DSSC using citric acid as solvent shows a higher efficiency compared to other solvents. Hence citric acid performs to be a safe solvent for natural DSSC in boosting the photovoltaic performance and maintaining the stability of anthocyanins.
Studies on Radio Frequency Sputtered Copper Zin Tin Sulphide Absorber Layers for Thin Film Solar Cells
Copper Zin tin sulphide (Cu2ZnSnS4 or CZTS) is found to be better alternative to Copper Indium gallium diselenide as absorber layers in thin film based solar cells due to the utilisation of earth-abundant materials in the midst of lower toxicity. In the present study, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films were prepared on soda lime glass using (CuS, ZnS, SnS) targets and were deposited by three different stacking orders, using RF Magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature was fixed at 300 °C during the depositions. CZTS thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. All the samples exhibited X-ray peaks pertaining to (112) kesterite phase of CZTS, along with the presence of a predominant wurtzite CZTS phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of all the elements in all the samples. The change in stacking order clearly shows that it affects the structural and phase properties of the films. Relative atomic concentrations of Zn, Cu, Sn and S, which are determined by high-resolution XPS core level spectra integrated peak areas revealed that the CZTS films exhibit inhomogeneity in both stoichiometry and elemental composition. Raman spectroscopy studies on the film showed the presence of CZTS phase. The energy band gap of the CZTS thin films was found to be in the range of 1.5 eV to 1.6 eV. The films were then annealed at 450 °C for 5 hrs and it was found that the predominant nature of the X-ray peaks has transformed from Wurtzite to Kesterite phase which is highly desirable for absorber layers in thin film solar cells. The optimized CZTS layer was used as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. ZnS and CdS were used as buffer layers which in turn prepared by Hot wall epitaxy technique. Gallium doped Zinc oxide was used as a transparent conducting oxide. The solar cell structure Glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS or ZnS/GZO has been fabricated, and solar cell parameters were measured.
Energy Storage Technologies and Projections of Grid Parity: A Case Study of Singapore
World renewable energy production is growing fast. This is mostly due to a sharp price reduction of energy sources, and particularly solar modules. Unfortunately, the growth of solar energy production is driven only by some countries (i.e. Germany, China, Japan, Italy, United States of America, Spain, France, India, Australia). Not surprisingly that some of them (i.e. Australia, Germany, Italy and Netherlands) have already achieved grid parity, where the cost of renewable energy reached the grid electricity price. However, other countries, such as Singapore, did not reach grid parity yet, cost of solar energy is still greater than fuel-based electricity price. Electricity storage technologies, such as batteries, can help reduce cost of solar energy further. Renewable energy, such as solar energy, is highly variable, thus more solar panels are required to meet energy demand. The main advantage of energy storage is that it allows to satisfy peak demand with lesser capacity of solar modules installations, and thus, to reduce payback period. Due to high price of energy storage technologies and their characteristics, such as power capacity, power density, efficiency, scale, discharge capacity, response time and lifetime; the benefit of energy storage might not offset their price yet. But it might offset in the future due to falling price. Bloomberg New Energy Finance projects that lithium-ion batteries will become three times cheaper by 2030. To compare energy storage technologies with electricity price we calculate levelized cost of solar energy. It measures the cost of kWh of solar energy in monetary units. Levelized cost of solar energy is a present value of an average total cost of electricity generation over the operational lifetime, including price of panels, installation, maintenance costs etc., per kWh of energy generated over the operational lifetime. Using projections of electricity price in Singapore, solar photovoltaics modules and energy storage technologies developed by International Renewable Energy Agency, International Energy Agency, Fraunhofer and Energy Market Authority of Singapore till 2030, this paper provides projections when grid parity will be achieved in Singapore with two types of batteries. Lead acid and lithium-ion batteries are considered as they have the greatest price fall projections. The preliminary results show that although lead acid batteries are more attractive now, due to lower price, lithium-ion batteries will allow reaching grid parity by 2030 due to significant price fall. The results of this paper have practical implications for energy policy design and the choice of solar inverters. Although installation of batteries could become attractive only in the future, solar inverters compatible with specific types of batteries could be already installed to save on future purchase of inverters compatible with lithium-ion batteries.
Real-Time Control of Induction Motor with Rapid Control Prototyping Using RT-Lab Software
In this paper, the authors present real-time control of induction motor with rapid control prototyping using RT-Lab Software. The aim of this work is to create a test bench for design and implementation V/F control of induction motor, in this setup of rapid control prototyping the op5600 simulator is used as core of (RCP) system. The real time V/F control algorithm is created in Matlab/Simulink software on the RT-Lab host computer with two subsystems SM and SC, the SM subsystem is compiled into C code using Matlab Real Time Workshop (RTW) facility. This code is then uploaded into the RT-Lab target computer via network connections TCP/IP protocol. The target runs the Redhat real-time operating system. The real time V/F control results are compared and discussed at the end of this article.
Comparative Analysis of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation and the Standard Pulse Width Modulation Technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter Fed Induction Motor
Multilevel inverters are increasingly being used in high-power medium voltage industrial drive applications due to their superior performance compared to conventional two-level inverters. There is a number of Pulses Width Modulation (PWM) techniques applied in recent years. The most widely applied PWM techniques are Sine Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). SPWM is the most simple modulation technique. It is one of the most popular PWM techniques for harmonic reduction of inverters. Space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) is widely used because of their easier digital realization and better DC bus utilization and lower THD, is based on the vector representation of three-phase voltages. This work presents a detailed analysis of the comparative advantage of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and the standard SPWM technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor. The comparison is based on the evaluation of harmonic distortion THD.
Sliding Mode Control of an Internet Teleoperated PUMA 600 Robot
In this paper, we have developed a sliding mode controller for PUMA 600 manipulator robot, to control the remote robot a teleoperation system was developed. This system includes two sites, local and remote. The sliding mode controller is installed at the remote site. The client asks for a position through an interface and receives the real positions after running of the task by the remote robot. Both sites are interconnected via the Internet. In order to verify the effectiveness of the sliding mode controller, that is compared with a classic PID controller. The developed approach is tested on a virtual robot. The results confirmed the high performance of this approach.
Thermal Analysis and Optimization of a High-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Toroidal Windings
Toroidal windings were taken advantage of to reduce of axial length of the motor, so as to match the applications that have severe restrictions on the axial length. But slotting in the out edge of the stator will decrease the heat-dissipation capacity of the water cooling of the housing. Besides, the windings in the outer slots will increase the copper loss, which will further increase the difficult for heat dissipation of the motor. At present, carbon-fiber composite retaining sleeve are increasingly used to be mounted over the magnets to ensure the rotor strength at high speeds. Due to the poor thermal conductivity of carbon-fiber sleeve, the cooling of the rotor becomes very difficult, which may result in the irreversible demagnetization of magnets for the excessively high temperature. So it is necessary to analyze the temperature rise of such motor. This paper builds a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of a toroidal-winding high-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with water cooling of housing and forced air cooling of rotor. Thermal analysis was carried out based on the model and the factors that affects the temperature rise were investigated. Then thermal optimization for the prototype was achieved. Finally, a small-size prototype was manufactured and the thermal analysis results were verified.
Multiple Winding Multiphase Motor for Electric Drive System
This paper proposes a novel multiphase motor structure. The armature winding consists of several independent multiphase windings that have different rating rotate speed and power. Compared to conventional motor, the novel motor structure has more operation mode and fault tolerance mode, which makes it adapt to high-reliability requirement situation such as electric vehicle, aircraft and ship. Performance of novel motor structure varies with winding match. In order to find optimum control strategy, motor torque character, efficiency performance and fault tolerance ability under different operation mode are analyzed in this paper, and torque distribution strategy for efficiency optimization is proposed. Simulation analyze is taken and the result shows that proposed structure has the same efficiency on heavy load and higher efficiency on light load operation points, which expands high efficiency area of motor and cruise range of vehicle. The proposed structure can improve motor highest speed.
Extended Constraint Mask Based One-Bit Transform for Low-Complexity Fast Motion Estimation
In this paper, an improved motion estimation (ME) approach based on weighted constrained one-bit transform is proposed for block-based ME employed in video encoders. Binary ME approaches utilize low bit-depth representation of the original image frames with a Boolean exclusive-OR based hardware efficient matching criterion to decrease computational burden of the ME stage. Weighted constrained one-bit transform (WC 1BT) based approach improves the performance of conventional C-1BT based motion estimation employing two bit-depth constraint mask in place of a one bit-depth mask. In this work, the range of constraint mask is further extended to increase ME performance of WC-1BT approach. Experiments reveal that the proposed method provides better ME accuracy compared existing similar ME methods in the literature.
Hardware Implementation of Local Binary Pattern Based Two-Bit Transform Motion Estimation
Nowadays, demand for using real-time video transmission capable devices is ever-increasing. So, high-resolution videos have made efficient video compression techniques an essential component for capturing and transmitting video data. Motion estimation has a critical role in encoding raw video. Hence, various motion estimation methods are introduced to efficiently compress the video. Low bit depth representation based motion estimation methods facilitate computation of matching criteria thus, provide small hardware footprint. In this paper, a hardware implementation of two-bit transformation based low-complexity motion estimation method using local binary pattern approach is proposed. Image frames are represented in two-bit depth instead of full-depth by making use of local binary pattern as a binarization approach, and binarization part of hardware architecture is explained in detail. Experimental results demonstrate the difference between proposed hardware architecture and the architectures of well-known low complexity motion estimation methods in terms of important aspects such as resource utilization, energy, and power consumption.
An Efficient Resource Management Algorithm for Mobility Management in Wireless Mesh Networks
The main objective of the proposed work is to reduce the overall network traffic incurred by mobility management, packet delivery cost and to increase the resource utilization. The proposed algorithm, An Efficient Resource Management Algorithm (ERMA) for mobility management in wireless mesh networks, relies on pointer based mobility management scheme. Whenever a mesh client moves from one mesh router to another, the pointer is set up dynamically between the previous mesh router and current mesh router based on the distance constraints. The algorithm evaluated for signaling cost, data delivery cost and total communication cost performance metrics. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated for both internet sessions and intranet sessions. The proposed algorithm yields significantly better performance in terms of signaling cost, data delivery cost, and total communication cost.
Laser Pulse Code Detection System with Microcontroller Using Pulse Repetition Frequency
In this paper, we describe and enhance detection and tracking of laser guided weapon decoding system based on microcontroller. The system is designed to receive the reflected pulse through a 4-quadrant laser detector and to process the received laser pulses through an electronic circuit, which send data to the microcontroller for decoding laser signal reflected by the target. The laser seeker accuracy will be improved by the decoding system, which reduced the time of laser detection by reducing the number of received pulse to detect the code and generating a narrow gate signal to improve the anti-jamming ability. We implement a model of the laser pulse code detection (PCD) system based on Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) technique with two microcontroller units (MCU). MCU1 generates laser pulses with different codes and also communicates with switches to control which code is selected. MCU2 recognizes the laser code and locks the system at the specific code. The locked frequency can be changed in both MCUs by switches’ selection. The system is implemented and tested in Proteus Software for laser code compatibility, laser code rejection. The concept is hardware implemented and used to evaluate the performance of 4-quadrant detector with laser PCD. The hardware system is tested for laser code compatibility, immunity to false laser codes, and laser code resolution. The system test results show that the system can detect the laser code with only three received pulses based on the narrow gate signal, and good agreement between simulation and measured system performance is obtained.
Low Power CMOS Amplifier Design for Wearable Electrocardiogram Sensor
The trend of health care screening devices in the world is increasingly towards the favor of portability and wearability, especially in the most common electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system. This is because these wearable screening devices are not restricting the patient’s freedom and daily activities. While the demand of low power and low cost biomedical system on chip (SoC) is increasing in exponential way, the front end ECG sensors are still suffering from flicker noise for low frequency cardiac signal acquisition, 50 Hz power line electromagnetic interference, and the large unstable input offsets due to the electrode-skin interface is not attached properly. In this paper, a high performance CMOS amplifier for ECG sensors that suitable for low power wearable cardiac screening is proposed. The amplifier adopts the highly stable folded cascode topology and later being implemented into RC feedback circuit for low frequency DC offset cancellation. By using 0.13 µm CMOS technology from Silterra, the simulation results show that this front end circuit can achieve a very low input referred noise of 1 pV/√Hz and high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 174.05 dB. It also gives voltage gain of 75.45 dB with good power supply rejection ratio (PSSR) of 92.12 dB. The total power consumption is only 3 µW and thus suitable to be implemented with further signal processing and classification back end for low power biomedical SoC.
An Improved Visible Range Absorption Spectroscopy on Soil Macronutrient
Soil fertility is commonly evaluated by soil macronutrients such as nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus contents. Optical spectroscopy is an emerging technology which is rapid and simple has been widely used in agriculture to measure soil fertility. For visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy, the absorbed light level in is useful for soil macro-nutrient measurement. This is because the absorption of light in a soil sample influences sensitivity of the measurement. This paper reports the performance of visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy in the 400–1400 nm wavelength range using light-emitting diode as the excitation light source to predict the soil macronutrient content of nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus. The experimental results show an improved linear regression analysis of various soil specimens based on the Beer–Lambert law to determine sensitivity of soil spectroscopy by evaluating the absorption of characteristic peaks emitted from a light-emitting diode and detected by high sensitivity optical spectrometer. This would denote in developing a simple and low-cost soil spectroscopy with light-emitting diode for future implementation.
Finite Element Analysis of a Modular Brushless Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine
This paper presents a comparative study of different modular brushless wound rotor synchronous machine (MB-WRSM). The goal of the study is to highlight the structure which offers the best fault tolerant capability and the highest output performances. The fundamental winding factor is calculated by using the method based on EMF phasors as a significant criterion to select the preferred number of phases, stator slots, and poles. With the limited number of poles for a small machine (3.67kW/7000rpm), 15 different machines for preferred phase/slot/pole combinations are analyzed using two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method and compared according to three criteria: torque density, torque ripple and efficiency. The 7phase/7slot/6pole machine is chosen with the best compromise of high torque density, small torque ripple (3.89%) and high nominal efficiency (95%). This machine is then compared with a reference design surface permanent magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM). In conclusion, this paper provides an electromagnetic analysis of a new brushless wound-rotor synchronous machine using multiphase non-overlapping fractional slot double layer winding. The simulation results are discussed and demonstrate that the MB-WRSM presents interesting performance features, with overall performance closely matching that of an equivalent SPMSM.
Electric Propulsion System Development for High Floor Trolley Bus
The development of environmentally friendly vehicles increasingly attracted the attention of almost all countries in the world, including Indonesia. There are various types of environmentally friendly vehicles, such as: electric vehicles, hybrid, and fuel gas. The Electric vehicle has been developed in Indonesia, a private or public vehicle. But many electric vehicles had been developed using the battery as a power source, while the battery technology for electric vehicles still constraints in capacity, dimensions of the battery itself and charging system. Trolley bus is one of the electric buses with the main power source of the network catenary / overhead line with trolley pole as the point of contact. This paper will discuss the design and manufacture electrical system in Trolleybus.
Detection of Defects in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer by Ultrasonic Infrared Thermographic Method
In the paper introduced the diagnostic technique making possible the research of internal structures in composite materials reinforced fibres using more in different applications. The main reason of damages in structures of these materials is the changing distribution of load in constructions in the lifetime. Appearing defect is largely complicated because of the appearance of disturbing of continuity of reinforced fibres, binder cracks and loss of fibres adhesiveness from binders. A defect in composite materials is usually more complicated than in metals. At the present moment, non-destructive diagnostics with method of IR thermography is applied more. One of IR thermography methods used in non-destructive evaluation is vibrothermography. The vibrothermography is not a new non-destructive method, but the new solution is to use ultrasonic waves to thermal stimulation of materials. In this paper, both modelling and experimental results which illustrate the advantages and limitations of ultrasonic IR thermography in inspecting composite materials will be presented. The ThermoSon computer program developed at Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia, was used to optimise heating parameters in the detection of subsurface defects in composite materials. The program allows for the analysis of transient heat conduction and ultrasonic wave propagation phenomena in solids. The experiments at MIAT were fulfilled by means of FLIR SC 7600 IR camera. A continuous ultrasonic stimulation was performed with a piezoelectric unit at the frequency from 15 kHz to 30 kHz with maximum power up to 2 kW.
3D-Vehicle Associated Research Fields for Smart City via Semantic Search Approach
This paper presents 15-year trends for scientific studies in a scientific database considering 3D and vehicle words. Two words are selected to find their associated publications in IEEE scholar database. Both of keywords are entered individually for the years 2002, 2012 and 2016 on the database to identify preferred subjects of researchers in same years. We have classified close research fields after searching and listing. Three years (2002, 2012, and 2016) have been investigated to figure out progress in specified time intervals first one is assumed as the initial progress in between 2002-2012, and the second one is in 2012-2016 that is fast development duration. We have found very interesting and beneficial results to understand the scholars’ research field preferences for a decade. This information will be highly desirable in smart city-based research purposes consisting of 3D and vehicle-related issues.
Modal Analysis of Power System with Microgrid
Microgrid (MG) is a small power grid composed of localized medium or low level power generation, storage systems, and loads. In this paper, the effects of microgrid on power systems voltage stability are shown. The MG model, designed to demonstrate the effects of the MG were applied to the IEEE 14 bus power system which is widely used in power system stability studies. Eigenvalue and modal analysis methods were used in simulation studies. In the study results, it is seen that MGs affect system voltage stability positively by increasing system voltage instability limit value for buses of power system in which MG are placed.
Real-Time Classification of Marbles with Decision-Tree Method
The separation of marbles according to the pattern quality is a process made according to expert decision. The classification phase is the most critical part in terms of economic value. In this study, a self-learning system is proposed which performs the classification of marbles quickly and with high success. This system performs ten feature extraction by taking ten marble images from the camera. The marbles are classified by decision tree method using the obtained properties. The user forms the training set by training the system at the marble classification stage. The system evolves itself in every marble image that is classified. The aim of the proposed system is to minimize the error caused by the person performing the classification and achieve it quickly.
Performance Analysis of Domotics System as Real-Time Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring
The deployment of smart meters by utility providers to gather fine grained spatiotemporal consumption data has grossly influenced the consumers’ emotion and behavior towards energy utilization. The quest for reduction in power consumption is now a subject of concern and one the methods adopted by the consumers to achieve this is Non-intrusive Load (appliance) Monitoring. Hence, this work presents performance Analysis of Domotics System as a tool for load monitoring when integrated with Consumer Control Unit of residential building. The system was developed with basic elements which enhance remote sensing, DTMF (Dual Tone Multi-frequency) recognition and cryptic messaging when specific task was performed. To demonstrate its applicability and suitability, this prototype was used consistently for six months at different load demands and the utilities consumed were documented. The results obtained shows good response when phone dialed, and the packet delivery of feedback SMS was quite satisfactory, making the implemented system to be of good quality with affordable cost and performs the desired functions. Besides, comparative analysis showed notable reduction in energy consumption and invariably lessened electrical bill of the consumer.
An Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Inner Product for the Recognition of Dry Vegetal Mass in Red-Green-Blue Images
In this paper, a new algorithm seeking to apply the fuzzy inner product for the recognition of vegetal mass in aerospace images acquired by unmanned aircraft vehicles is presented. Two sets of images are utilized, one for dry vegetal mass and another for green vegetal mass, with this work we pretend to automatically detect droughts, deforestation, damage due to fires and thus to obtain an early alert system for wildfires. We make an introduction to fuzzy systems, inner product and the union of both for applying to histograms and red-green-blue (RGB) image matrices, finding the points of interest necessary to obtain a certain level of dry vegetal mass in the RGB image of study.
High-Quality Flavor of Black Belly Pork under Lightning Corona Discharge Using Tesla Coil for High Voltage Education
The Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit designed by inventor Nikola Tesla in 1891. It is used to produce high voltage, low current and high frequency alternating current electricity. Tesla experimented with a number of different configurations consisting of two or sometimes three coupled resonant electric circuits. This paper focuses on development and high voltage education to apply a Tesla coil to cuisine for high quality flavor and taste conditioning as well as high voltage education under 50 kV corona discharge. The result revealed that the velocity of roasted black belly pork by Tesla coil is faster than that of conventional methods such as hot grill and steel plate etc. depending on applied voltage level and applied voltage time. Besides, carbohydrate and crude protein increased, whereas natrium and saccharides significantly decreased after lightning surge by Tesla coil. This idea will be useful in high voltage education and high voltage application.
Analytical Investigation of Modeling and Simulation of Different Combinations of Sinusoidal Supplied Autotransformer under Linear Loading Conditions
This paper investigates the operation of a sinusoidal supplied autotransformer on the different states of magnetic polarity of primary and secondary terminals for four different step-up and step-down analytical conditions. In this paper, a new analytical modeling and equations for dot-marked and polarity-based step-up and step-down autotransformer are presented. These models are validated by the simulation of current and voltage waveforms for each state. PSpice environment was used for simulation.
Simulation and Analytical Investigation of Different Combination of Single Phase Power Transformers
In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the ideal single-phase power transformer with its appropriate voltage current measurement was presented. The calculated values of the voltages and currents of the different connections single phase normal transformer and the results of the simulation process are compared. As it can be seen, the calculated results are the same as the simulated results. This paper includes eight possible different transformer connections. Depending on the desired voltage level, step-down and step-up application transformer is considered. Modelling and analysis of a system consisting of an equivalent source, transformer (primary and secondary), and loads are performed to investigate the combinations. The obtained values are simulated in PSpice environment and then how the currents, voltages and phase angle are distributed between them is explained based on calculation.
CPU Architecture Based on Static Hardware Scheduler Engine and Multiple Pipeline Registers
The development of CPUs and of real-time systems based on them made it possible to use time at increasingly low resolutions. Together with the scheduling methods and algorithms, time organizing has been improved so as to respond positively to the need for optimization and to the way in which the CPU is used. This presentation contains both a detailed theoretical description and the results obtained from research on improving the performances of the nMPRA (Multi Pipeline Register Architecture) processor by implementing specific functions in hardware. The proposed CPU architecture has been developed, simulated and validated by using the FPGA Virtex-7 circuit, via a SoC project. Although the nMPRA processor hardware structure with five pipeline stages is very complex, the present paper presents and analyzes the tests dedicated to the implementation of the CPU and of the memory on-chip for instructions and data. In order to practically implement and test the entire SoC project, various tests have been performed. These tests have been performed in order to verify the drivers for peripherals and the boot module named Bootloader.