International Science Index
International Journal of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering
Extreme Value Theory Applied in Reliability Analysis: Case Study of Diesel Generator Fans
Reliability analysis represents a very important task in different areas of work. In any industry, this is crucial for maintenance, efficiency, safety and monetary costs. There are ways to calculate reliability, unreliability, failure density and failure rate. In this paper, the results for the reliability of diesel generator fans were calculated through Extreme Value Theory. The Extreme Value Theory is not widely used in the engineering field. Its usage is well known in other areas such as hydrology, meteorology, finance. The significance of this theory is in the fact that unlike the other statistical methods it is focused on rare and extreme values, and not on average. It should be noted that this theory is not designed exclusively for extreme events, but for extreme values in any event. Therefore, this is a great opportunity to apply the theory and test if it could be applied in this situation. The significance of the work is the calculation of time to failure or reliability in a new way, using statistic. Another advantage of this calculation is that there is no need for technical details and it can be implemented in any part for which we need to know the time to fail in order to have appropriate maintenance, but also to maximize usage and minimize costs. In this case, calculations have been made on diesel generator fans but the same principle can be applied to any other part. The data for this paper came from a field engineering study of the time to failure of diesel generator fans. The ultimate goal was to decide whether or not to replace the working fans with a higher quality fan to prevent future failures. The results achieved in this method will show the approximation of time for which the fans will work as they should, and the percentage of probability of fans working more than certain estimated time. Extreme Value Theory can be applied not only for rare and extreme events, but for any event that has values which we can consider as extreme.
Modified Single-Folded Potentials for the Alpha-²⁴Mg and Alpha-²⁸Si Elastic Scattering
Alpha-nucleus interaction is obscured because it produces enhanced cross-sections at large scattering angles known as anomaly in large angle scattering (ALAS). ALAS is prominent in the elastic scattering of α-particles as well as in non-elastic processes involving α-particles for incident energies up to 50 MeV and for targets of mass A ≤ 50. The Woods-Saxon type of optical model potential fails to describe the processes in a consistent manner. Folded potential is a good candidate and often used to construct the potential which is derived from the microscopic as well as semi-microscopic folding calculations. The present work reports the analyses of the elastic scattering of α-particles from ²⁴Mg and ²⁸Si at Eα=22-100 MeV and 14.4-120 MeV incident energies respectively in terms of the modified single-folded (MSF) potential. To derive the MSF potential, we take the view that the nucleons in the target nuclei ²⁴Mg and ²⁸Si are primarily in α-like clusters and the rest of the time in unclustered nucleonic configuration. The MSF potential, found in this study, does not need any renormalization over the whole range of incident α energies, and the renormalization factor has been found to be exactly 1 for both the targets. The best-fit parameters yield 4Aα = 21 and AN = 3 for α-²⁴Mg potential, and 4Aα = 26 and AN = 2 for α-²⁸Si potential in time-average pictures. The root-mean-square radii of both ²⁴Mg and ²⁸Si are also deduced, and the results obtained from this work agree well with the outcomes of other studies.
Establishment of the Regression Uncertainty of the Critical Heat Flux Power Correlation for an Advanced Fuel Bundle
A new regression uncertainty analysis methodology was applied to determine the uncertainties of the critical heat flux (CHF) power correlation for an advanced 43-element bundle design, which was developed by Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) to achieve improved economics, resource utilization and energy sustainability. The new methodology is considered more appropriate than the traditional methodology in the assessment of the experimental uncertainty associated with regressions. The methodology was first assessed using both the Monte Carlo Method (MCM) and the Taylor Series Method (TSM) for a simple linear regression model, and then extended successfully to a non-linear CHF power regression model (CHF power as a function of inlet temperature, outlet pressure and mass flow rate). The regression uncertainty assessed by MCM agrees well with that by TSM. An equation to evaluate the CHF power regression uncertainty was developed and expressed as a function of independent variables that determine the CHF power.
18F-Fluoro-Ethyl-Tyrosine-Positron Emission Tomography in Gliomas: Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography
The precise definition margin of high and low-grade gliomas is crucial for treatment. We aimed to assess the feasibility of assessment of the resection legions with post-operative positron emission tomography (PET) using [18F]O-(2-[18F]-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([18F]FET). Four patients with the suspicion of high and low-grade were enrolled. Patients underwent post-operative [18F]FET-PET, pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT for clinical evaluations. In our study, three patients had negative response to recurrence and progression and one patient indicated positive response after surgery. [18F]FET-PET revealed a legion of increased radiotracer uptake in the dura in the craniotomy site for patient 1. Corresponding to the patient history, the study was negative for recurrence of brain tumor. For patient 2, there was a lesion in the right parieto-temporal with slightly increased uptake in its posterior part with SUVmax = 3.79, so the study was negative for recurrence evaluation. In patient 3 there was no abnormal uptake with negative result for recurrence of brain tumor. Intense radiotracer uptake in the left parietal lobe where in the MRI there was a lesion with no change in enhancement in the post-contrast image is indicated in patient 4. Assessment of the resection legions in high and low-grade gliomas with [18F]FET-PET seems to be useful.
Addressing Public Concerns about Radiation Impacts by Looking Back in Nuclear Accidents Worldwide
According to a report of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), there are approximately 437 nuclear power stations are in operation in the present around the world in order to meet increasing energy demands. Indeed, nearly, a third of the world’s energy demands are met through nuclear power because it is one of the most efficient and long-lasting sources of energy. However, there are also consequences when a major event takes place at a nuclear power station. Over the past years, a few major nuclear accidents have occurred around the world. According to a report of International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES), there are six nuclear accidents that are considered to be high level (risk) of the events: Fukushima Dai-chi (Level 7), Chernobyl (Level 7), Three Mile Island (Level 5), Windscale (Level 5), Kyshtym (Level 6) and Chalk River (Level 5). Today, many people still have doubt about using nuclear power. There is growing number of people who are against nuclear power after the serious accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-chi nuclear power plant in Japan. In other words, there are public concerns about radiation impacts which emphasize Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) Issues, Radiation Health Effects, Radiation Protection and Social Impacts. This paper will address those keywords by looking back at the history of these major nuclear accidents worldwide, based on INES. This paper concludes that all major mistake from nuclear accidents are preventable due to the fact that most of them are caused by human error. In other words, the human factor has played a huge role in the malfunction and occurrence of most of those events. The correct handle of a crisis is determined, by having a good radiation protection program in place, it’s what has a big impact on society and determines how acceptable people are of nuclear.
R Statistical Software Applied in Reliability Analysis: Case Study of Diesel Generator Fans
Reliability analysis represents a very important task in different areas of work. In any industry, this is crucial for maintenance, efficiency, safety and monetary costs. There are ways to calculate reliability, unreliability, failure density and failure rate. This paper will try to introduce another way of calculating reliability by using R statistical software. R is a free software environment for statistical computing and graphics. It compiles and runs on a wide variety of UNIX platforms, Windows and MacOS. The R programming environment is a widely used open source system for statistical analysis and statistical programming. It includes thousands of functions for the implementation of both standard and new statistical methods. R does not limit user only to operation related only to these functions. This program has many benefits over other similar programs: it is free and, as an open source, constantly updated; it has built-in help system; the R language is easy to extend with user-written functions. The significance of the work is calculation of time to failure or reliability in a new way, using statistic. Another advantage of this calculation is that there is no need for technical details and it can be implemented in any part for which we need to know time to fail in order to have appropriate maintenance, but also to maximize usage and minimize costs. In this case, calculations have been made on diesel generator fans but the same principle can be applied to any other part. The data for this paper came from a field engineering study of the time to failure of diesel generator fans. The ultimate goal was to decide whether or not to replace the working fans with a higher quality fan to prevent future failures. Seventy generators were studied. For each one, the number of hours of running time from its first being put into service until fan failure or until the end of the study (whichever came first) was recorded. Dataset consists of two variables: hours and status. Hours show the time of each fan working and status shows the event: 1- failed, 0- censored data. Censored data represent cases when we cannot track the specific case, so it could fail or success. Gaining the result by using R was easy and quick. The program will take into consideration censored data and include this into the results. This is not so easy in hand calculation. For the purpose of the paper results from R program have been compared to hand calculations in two different cases: censored data taken as a failure and censored data taken as a success. In all three cases, results are significantly different. If user decides to use the R for further calculations, it will give more precise results with work on censored data than the hand calculation.
Specific Gravity and Specific Heat of Stainless Steel Containing 5mass%-B4C
Control rod materials (B4C: boron carbide) might melt in molten core material mixture pool during severe accident in sodium-cooled fast reactors. In such a situation, the cladding and wrapper tube made of stainless steel (SS) as the structural material would melt by eutectic reaction between B4C and SS below the SS melting temperature, thereby producing a B4C-SS eutectic alloy. To address this material, the development of thermo-physical property models is necessary for severe accident simulation code which could be applied to reactor safety assessment. In the severe accident, the B4C-SS eutectic alloy formed as the melt by the eutectic reaction would freeze by the heat transfer with cold core materials. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the thermophysical property database of the B4C-SS eutectic alloy in the solid phase. This study is intended to measure the specific gravity, and specific heat of the B4C-SS eutectic alloy with emphasis on 5 mass%-B4C and SS. 5mass%B4C-SS standard sample distributed boron and carbon uniformly was synthesized to clarify the thermophysical properties of the B4C-SS eutectic alloy. The homogeneity was confirmed by a chemical analysis and a microstructure observation. The melting start temperature of the sample was obtained by using a thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analyzer (TG-DTA). As the thermophysical properties under solid phase, specific gravity and specific heat were evaluated up to 1000°C. The specific gravity was measured by utilizing the Archimedes method (at room temperature) and the thermal expansion method. The specific heat was evaluated by utilizing the adiabatic calorimetry method and the TG-DTA method. The specific gravity was about 7.4g/cm3 at room temperature and decrease of the specific gravity due to the temperature rise was slow compared with SUS316L. The specific heat was slightly higher than that of the SUS316L, and showed similar temperature dependence up to 800°C.
Thermophysical Properties of Molten Stainless Steel Containing 5 Mass%-B4C
Thermophysical properties of the molten mixture of stainless steel (SS) and control rod material (B4C) are necessary to understand a core degradation mechanism in severe accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Thermophysical property database should be built for the system of SS and B4C. However, the reliable data are scarce for the SS-B4C melts because of the experimental difficulty in measurements. Generally, high-temperature melts may react with container materials, which causes chemical contamination and limits a temperature range for measurements. In addition, convection existing in the melts causes large uncertainty in thermal conductivity measurement.
In order to overcome these difficulties, Fukuyama group and their collaborators have developed a noncontact high-temperature thermophysical property measurement system, which is called as PROSPECT (Properties and Simulations Probed with Electromagnetic Containerless Technique). This system consists of an electromagnetic levitator incorporating a superconducting magnet, laser heating system, high-speed CCD camera, data-logging system and gas-controlling system including an oxygen sensor. The levitation technique provides contamination free measurements. A dc magnetic field generated by the superconducting magnet is applied to the levitated droplet, which suppresses the droplet oscillation and also convection in the droplet because of the Lorentz force. Thus, PROSPECT greatly improves uncertainties in measurements of heat capacity, emissivity, density and surface tension of high-temperature molten metals and alloys. Moreover, PROSPECT has a significant technical advantage that the true thermal conductivities can be measured with suppressed convection in the droplet under a dc magnetic field.
In this study, the liquidus temperature was first determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the stainless steel (SUS316L) containing 5 mass%-B4C. After this, the density, surface tension, normal spectral emissivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of molten SUS316L - 5 mass%-B4C were measured using PROSPECT. The density was measured by a laser imaging method for the levitated droplet. The surface tension was measured by an oscillating droplet method. The normal spectral emissivity was measured by a direct measurement of radiation from droplet surface. The specific heat and thermal conductivity were measured by a laser modulation calorimetry with controlling a dc magnetic field.
All thermophysical properties were successfully determined as a function of temperature over a wide temperature range including a supercooling liquid state. Experimental uncertainty was also evaluated for each thermophysical property. Experimental details and results will be presented in ICNMNS 2017.
Processing and Characterization of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Fe-14Cr-3W-0.5Ti-0.3Y₂O₃ (14YWT) Ferritic Steel
Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are amongst the most promising candidates for large scale structural materials to be applied in next generation fission and fusion nuclear power reactors. This kind of material is relatively stable at high temperature, possess remarkable mechanical properties and comparatively good resistance from neutron radiation damage. The superior performance of ODS ferritic steels over their conventional properties is attributed to the high number density of nano-sized dispersoids that act as nucleation sites and stable sinks for many small helium bubbles resulting from irradiation, and also as pinning points to dislocation movement and grain growth. ODS ferritic steels are usually produced by powder metallurgical routes involving mechanical alloying (MA) process of Y2O3 and pre-alloyed or elemental metallic powders, and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or hot extrusion (HE) techniques. In this study, Fe-14Cr-3W-0.5Ti-0.3Y₂O₃ (designated as 14YWT) was produced by mechanical alloying process and followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique. Crystal structure and morphology of this sample were identified and characterized by using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) respectively. The magnetic measurement of this sample at room temperature was carried out by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). FESEM micrograph revealed a homogeneous microstructure constituted by fine grains of less than 650 nm in size. The ultra-fine dispersoids of size between 5 nm to 19 nm were observed homogeneously distributed within the BCC matrix. The EDS mapping reveals that the dispersoids contain Y-Ti-O nanoclusters and from the magnetization curve plotted by VSM, this sample approaches the behavior of soft ferromagnetic materials. In conclusion, ODS Fe-14Cr-3W-0.5Ti-0.3Y₂O₃ (14YWT) ferritic steel was successfully produced by HIP technique in this present study.
The Preparation of Titanate Nano-Materials Removing Efficiently Cs-137 from Waste Water in Nuclear Power Plants
Cs-137, the radioactive fission products of uranium, can be easily dissolved in water during the accident of nuclear power plant, such as Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Fukushima accidents. The concentration of Cs in the groundwater around the nuclear power plant exceeded the standard value almost 10,000 times after the Fukushima accident. The adsorption capacity of Titanate nano-materials for radioactive cation (Cs+) is very strong. Moreover, the radioactive ion can be tightly contained in the nanotubes or nanofibers without reversible adsorption, and it can safely be fixed. In addition, the nano-material has good chemical stability, thermal stability and mechanical stability to minimize the environmental impact of nuclear waste and waste volume. The preparation of titanate nanotubes or nanofibers was studied by hydrothermal methods, and chemical kinetics of removal of Cs by nano-materials was obtained. The adsorption time with maximum adsorption capacity and the effects of pH, coexisting ion concentration and the optimum adsorption conditions on the removal of Cs by titanate nano-materials were also obtained. The adsorption boundary curves, adsorption isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity of Cs-137 as tracer on the nano-materials were studied in the research. The experimental results showed that the removal rate of Cs-137 in 0.01 tons of waste water with only 1 gram nano-materials could reach above 98%, according to the optimum adsorption conditions.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Irradiation-Induced Damage Cascades in Graphite
Graphite is the matrix, and structural material in the high temperature gas-cooled reactor exhibits an irradiation response. It is of significant importance to analyze the defect production and evaluate the role of graphite under irradiation. A vast experimental literature exists for graphite on the dimensional change, mechanical properties, and thermal behavior. However, simulations have not been applied to the atomistic perspective. Remarkably few molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the irradiation response in graphite.
In this paper, irradiation-induced damage cascades in graphite were investigated with molecular dynamics simulation. Statistical results of the graphite defects were obtained by sampling a wide energy range (1–30 KeV) and 10 different runs for every cascade simulation with different random number generator seeds to the velocity scaling thermostat function. The chemical bonding in carbon was described using the adaptive intermolecular reactive empirical bond-order potential (AIREBO) potential coupled with the standard Ziegler–Biersack–Littmack (ZBL) potential to describe close-range pair interactions. This study focused on analyzing the number of defects, the final cascade morphology and the distribution of defect clusters in space, the length-scale cascade properties such as the cascade length and the range of primary knock-on atom (PKA), and graphite mechanical properties’ variation. It can be concluded that the number of surviving Frenkel pairs increased remarkably with the increasing initial PKA energy but did not exhibit a thermal spike at slightly lower energies in this paper. The PKA range and cascade length approximately linearly with energy which indicated that increasing the PKA initial energy will come at expensive computation cost such as 30KeV in this study. The cascade morphology and the distribution of defect clusters in space mainly related to the PKA energy meanwhile the temperature effect was relatively negligible. The simulations are in agreement with known experimental results and the Kinchin-Pease model, which can help to understand the graphite damage cascades and lifetime span under irradiation and provide a direction to the designs of these kinds of structural materials in the future reactors.
Transient Simulation Using SPACE for ATLAS Facility to Investigate the Effect of Heat Loss on Major Parameters
A heat loss model for ATLAS facility was introduced using SPACE code predefined correlations and various dialing factors. As all previous simulations were carried out using a heat loss free input; the facility was considered to be completely insulated and the core power was reduced by the experimentally measured values of heat loss to compensate to the account for the loss of heat, this study will consider heat loss throughout the simulation. The new heat loss model will be affecting SPACE code simulation as heat being leaked out of the system throughout a transient will alter many parameters corresponding to temperature and temperature difference. For that, a Station Blackout followed by a multiple Steam Generator Tube Rupture accident will be simulated using both the insulated system approach and the newly introduced heat loss input of the steady state. Major parameters such as system temperatures, pressure values, and flow rates to be put into comparison and various analysis will be suggested upon it as the experimental values will not be the reference to validate the expected outcome. This study will not only show the significance of heat loss consideration in the processes of prevention and mitigation of various incidents, design basis and beyond accidents as it will give a detailed behavior of ATLAS facility during both processes of steady state and major transient, but will also present a verification of how credible the data acquired of ATLAS are; since heat loss values for steady state were already mismatched between SPACE simulation results and ATLAS data acquiring system.
Electro-Optical Full-Adder/Full-Subtractor Based on Graphene-Silicon Switches
In this paper, a compact footprint, low power consumption and high speed electro-optical full-adder/full-subtractor based on graphene-silicon switches is demonstrated. Each switch consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) in which a few-layer graphene is embedded in silicon slot waveguide to implement phase shifters. The proposed structure can be used as full-adder and full subtractor simultaneously. Our simulations result in various characteristics such as extinction ratio, power consumption and operation speed. It is shown that the presented structure has a minimum extinction ratio of 30 dB and is able to work under high operation speed of 180 GHz with low applied voltage about 1.4 V for transfer electric modes(TE) at telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 um.
An Integrated Plasmonic Source Employing a Nanoscale Vertical Cavity
In this paper, a new structure of a vertical cavity plasmonic source is presented. The structure, which is adopted from a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) plasmonic photodetector, contains a gold substrate, an active GaAs layer surrounded by p- and n-type GaAs layers on the top and bottom, respectively, a subwavelength aperture and metal gratings on both sides of the aperture. The metal gratings are improved adding SiO2 between metal grooves and semiconductor. The generated photons in the active layer excite a resonant surface plasmonic mode in the nanoscale cavity just below the aperture. One can use the light outflowing from the nanoscale aperture as a source to excite an arbitrary plasmonic guiding structure. The function of the device is validated using a finite-difference time- domain (FDTD) numerical algorithm via the software package Lumerical.
Influence of Thermal Ageing on Microstructural Features and Mechanical Properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Grades
Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (FM) steels like EUROFER are of interest for first wall application in the future demonstration (DEMO) fusion reactor. Depending on the final design codes for the DEMO reactor, the first wall material will have to function in low-temperature mode or high-temperature mode, i.e. around 250-300°C of above 550°C respectively. However, the use of RAFM steels is limited up to a temperature of about 550°C.
For the low-temperature application, the material suffers from irradiation embrittlement, due to a shift of ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) towards higher temperatures upon irradiation. The high-temperature response of the material is equally insufficient for long-term use in fusion reactors, due to the instability of the matrix phase and coarsening of the precipitates at prolonged high-temperature exposure.
The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of thermal ageing for 1000 hrs and 4000 hrs on microstructural features and mechanical properties of lab-cast EUROFER. Additionally, the ageing behavior of the lab-cast EUROFER is compared with the ageing behavior of standard EUROFER97-2 and T91.
The microstructural features were investigated with light optical microscopy (LOM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, hardness measurements, tensile tests at elevated temperatures and Charpy V-notch impact testing of KLST-type MCVN specimens were performed to study the microstructural features and mechanical properties of four different F/M grades, i.e. T91, EUROFER97-2 and two lab-casted EUROFER grades.
After ageing for 1000 hrs, the microstructures exhibit similar martensitic block sizes independent on the grain size before ageing. With respect to the initial coarser microstructures, the aged microstructures displayed a dislocation structure which is partially fragmented by polygonization. On the other hand, the initial finer microstructures tend to be more stable up to 1000hrs resulting in similar grain sizes for the four different steels. Increasing the ageing time to 4000 hrs, resulted in an increase of lath thickness and coarsening of M23C6 precipitates leading to a deterioration of tensile properties.
Numerical Prediction of Spacer Effect on Turbulent Mixing Phenomena in Sub Channels of Nuclear Rod Bundle in Advanced Heavy Water Reactor
Numerical simulations of selected subchannel tracer (Potassium Nitrate) based experiments have been performed to study the capabilities of state-of-the-art of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology can be useful for investigating the spacer effect on turbulent mixing to predict turbulent flow behavior such as Dimensionless mixing scalar distributions, radial velocity and vortices in the nuclear fuel assembly. A Gibson and Launder (GL) Reynolds stress model (RSM) has been selected as the primary turbulence model to be applied for the simulation case as it has been previously found reasonably accurate to predict flows inside rod bundles. As a comparison, the case is also simulated using a standard k-ε turbulence model that is widely used in industry. Despite being an isotropic turbulence model, it has also been used in the modeling of flow in rod bundles and to produce lateral velocities after thorough mixing of coolant fairly. Both these models have been solved numerically to find out fully developed isothermal turbulent flow in a 30º segment of a 54-rod bundle. Numerical simulation has been carried out for the study of natural mixing of a Tracer (Passive scalar) to characterize the growth of turbulent diffusion in an injected sub-channel and, afterwards on, cross-mixing between adjacent sub-channels. The mixing with water has been numerically studied by means of steady state CFD simulations with the commercial code STAR-CCM+. Flow enters into the computational domain through the mass inflow at the three subchannel faces. Turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter of 1% and 5.9 mm respectively were used for the inlet. A passive scalar (Potassium nitrate) is injected through the mass fraction of 5.536 PPM at subchannel 2 (Upstream of the mixing section). Flow exited the domain through the pressure outlet boundary (0 Pa), and the reference pressure was 1 atm. Simulation results have been extracted at different locations of the mixing zone and downstream zone. The local mass fraction shows uniform mixing. The effect of the applied turbulence model is nearly negligible just before the outlet plane because the distributions look like almost identical and the flow is fully developed. On the other hand, quantitatively the dimensionless mixing scalar distributions change noticeably, which is visible in the different scale of the colour bars.
A Real Time Expert System for Decision Support in Nuclear Power Plants
In case of abnormal situations, the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators must follow written procedures to check the condition of the plant and to classify the type of emergency. In this paper, we proposed a Real Time Expert System in order to improve operator’s performance in case of transient or accident with reactor shutdown. The expert system’s knowledge is based on the sequence of events (SoE) of known accident and two emergency procedures of the Brazilian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) NPP and uses two kinds of knowledge representation: rule and logic trees. The results show that the system was able to classify the response of the automatic protection systems, as well as to evaluate the conditions of the plant, diagnosing the type of occurrence, recovery procedure to be followed, indicating the shutdown root cause, and classifying the emergency level.
Communicating Nuclear Energy in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Country Comparison of Communication Channels and Source Credibility
Nuclear energy is a contentious technology that has attracted much public debate over the years. The prominence of nuclear energy in Southeast Asia (SEA) has burgeoned due to the surge of interest and plans for nuclear development in the region. Understanding public perceptions of nuclear energy in SEA is pertinent given the limited number of studies conducted. In particular, five SEA nations – Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam are of immediate interest as that they are amongst the most economically developed or developing nations in the SEA region. High energy demands from economic development in these nations have led to considerations of adopting nuclear energy as an alternative source of energy. This study aims to explore whether differences in the nuclear developmental stage in each country affects public perceptions of nuclear energy. In addition, this study seeks to find out about the type and importance of communication credibility as a judgement heuristic in facilitating message acceptance across these five countries. Credibility of a communication channel is a crucial component influencing public perception, acceptance, and attitudes towards nuclear energy. Aside from simply identifying the frequently used communication channels, it is of greater significance to understand public perception of source and media credibility.
Given the lack of studies conducted in SEA, this exploratory study adopts a qualitative approach to elicit a spectrum of opinions and insights regarding the key communication aspects influencing public perceptions of nuclear energy. Specifically, the capitals of each of the abovementioned countries - Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok, and Hanoi - were selected, with the exception of Singapore, an island city-state, and Yogyakarta, the most populous island of Indonesia to better understand public perception towards nuclear energy. Focus group discussions were utilized as the mode of data collection to elicit a wide variety of viewpoints held by the participants, which is well-suited for exploratory research.
In total, 156 participants took part in the 13 focus group discussions. The participants were either local citizens or permanent residents aged between 18 and 69 years old. Each of the focus groups consists of 8-10 participants, including both male and female participants. The transcripts from each focus group were analysed using NVivo 10, and the text was organised according to the emerging themes or categories. The general public in all the countries was familiar but had no in-depth knowledge with nuclear energy. Four dimensions of nuclear energy communication were identified based on the focus group discussions: communication channels, perceived credibility of sources, circumstances for discussion, and discussion style.
The first dimension, communication channels refers to the medium through which participants receive information about nuclear energy. Four types of media emerged from the discussions. They included online and social media, broadcast media, print media, and word-of-
mouth (WOM). Collectively, across all five countries, participants were found to engage in different types of knowledge acquisition and information seeking behavior depending on the communication channels used.
A Multipurpose Inertial Electrostatic Magnetic Confinement Fusion for Medical Isotopes Production
A practical multipurpose device for medical isotopes production is most wanted for clinical centers and researches. Unfortunately, the major supply of these radioisotopes currently comes from aging sources, and there is a great deal of uneasiness in the domestic market. There are also many cases where the cost of certain radioisotopes is too high for their introduction on a commercial scale even though the isotopes might have great benefits for society. The medical isotopes such as radiotracers PET (Positron Emission Tomography), Technetium-99 m, and Iodine-131, Lutetium-177 by is feasible to be generated by a single unit named IEMC (Inertial Electrostatic Magnetic Confinement). The IEMC fusion vessel is the upgrading unit of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement IEC fusion vessel. Comprehensive experimental works on IEC were carried earlier with promising results. The principle of inertial electrostatic magnetic confinement IEMC fusion is based on forcing the binary fuel ions to interact in the opposite directions in ions cyclotrons orbits with different kinetic energies in order to have equal compression (forces) and with different ion cyclotron frequency ω in order to increase the rate of intersection. The IEMC features greater fusion volume than IEC by several orders of magnitude. The particles rate from the IEMC approach are projected to be 8.5 x 10¹¹ (p/s), ~ 0.2 microampere proton, for D/He-3 fusion reaction and 4.2 x 10¹² (n/s) for D/T fusion reaction. The projected values of particles yield (neutrons and protons) are suitable for medical isotope productions on-site by a single unit without any change in the fusion vessel but only the fuel gas. The PET radiotracers are usually produced on-site by medical ion accelerator whereas Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) is usually produced off-site from the irradiation facilities of nuclear power plants. Typically, hospitals receive molybdenum-99 isotope container; the isotope decays to Tc-99mwith half-life time 2.75 days. Even though the projected current from IEMC is lesser than the proton current from the medical ion accelerator but still the IEMC vessel is simpler, and reduced in components and power consumption which add a new value of populating the PET radiotracers in most clinical centers. On the other hand, the projected neutrons flux from the IEMC is lesser than the thermal neutron flux at the irradiation facilities of nuclear power plants, but in the IEMC case the productions of Technetium-99m is suggested to be at the resonance region of which the resonance integral cross section is two orders of magnitude higher than the thermal flux. Thus it can be said the net activity from both is evened. Besides, the particle accelerator cannot be considered a multipurpose particles production unless a significant change is made to the accelerator to change from neutrons mode to protons mode or vice versa. In conclusion, the projected fusion yield from IEMC is a straightforward since slightly change in the primer IEC and ion source is required.
Seasonal Variation of the Unattached Fraction and Equilibrium Factor of ²²²Rn, ²²⁰Rn
Radon (²²²Rn) and its decay products are the major sources of natural radiation exposure to general population. The activity concentrations of radon, thoron gasses, and their unattached and attached short-lived progeny in indoor environment of the Jaipur and Ajmer districts of Rajasthan had been calculated via passive measurements using the Pinhole cup dosimeter, deposition based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS) and wire mesh capped (DRPS/DTPS) progeny sensors. The results of this study revealed that radon and thoron concentrations (CRn, CTn) are highest in the winter season. The variation of the radon and its decay products are observed to vary seasonally, but these environmental parameters seem not to be affecting the thoron and its decay product concentrations in a regular manner. The average values of the radon and its decay products are maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The equilibrium factor for radon is observed to be 0.50, 0.47 and 0.49 in winter, rainy and summer seasons. The annual average value of the unattached fraction of the radon progeny comes out to be 0.34. On the other hand, the average value of thoron (²²⁰Rn) concentration and its equilibrium factor in the studied area comes to be 74, 39, 45 Bq m⁻³ and 0.07, 0.11, 0.07 respectively for the winter, rainy and summer seasons with the annual average value of the unattached fraction of about 0.18. The annual average radiological dose from exposure to indoor radon and thoron progeny comes out to be 0.88 and 0.78 mSv.
Two-Dimensional Modeling of Spent Nuclear Fuel Using FLUENT
In a nuclear reactor, an array of fuel rods containing stacked uranium dioxide pellets clad with zircalloy is the heat source for a thermodynamic cycle of energy conversion from heat to electricity. After fuel is used in a nuclear reactor, the assemblies are stored underwater in a spent nuclear fuel pool at the nuclear power plant while heat generation and radioactive decay rates decrease before it is placed in packages for dry storage or transportation. A two-dimensional computational model using FLUENT to predict the heat transfer and the maximum temperature inside a spent fuel assembly is presented in this paper along with preliminary studies for a mathematical method that combines computational fluid dynamics with MATLAB data analysis.
Preliminary Evaluation of Decommissioning Wastes for the First Commercial Nuclear Power Reactor in South Korea
The first commercial nuclear power reactor in South Korea, Kori Unit 1, which was a 587 MWe pressurized water reactor that started operation since 1978, was permanently shutdown in June 2017 without an additional operating license extension. The Kori 1 Unit is scheduled to become the first nuclear power unit to enter the decommissioning phase. In this study, the preliminary evaluation of the decommissioning wastes for the Kori Unit 1 was performed based on the following series of process: Firstly, the plant inventory is investigated based on various documents (i.e., equipment/component list, construction records, general arrangement drawings). Secondly, the radiological conditions of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) are established to estimate the amount of radioactive waste by waste classification. Third, the waste management strategies for Kori Unit 1 including waste packaging are established. Fourth, selection of the proper decontamination and dismantling (D&D) technologies is made considering the various factors. Finally, the amount of decommissioning waste by classification for Kori 1 is estimated using the DeCAT program, which was developed by KEPCO-E&C for a decommissioning cost estimation. The preliminary evaluation results have shown that the expected amounts of decommissioning wastes were less than about 2% and 8% of the total wastes generated (i.e., sum of clean wastes and radwastes) before/after waste processing, respectively, and it was found that the majority of contaminated material was carbon or alloy steel and stainless steel. In addition, within the range of availability of information, the results of the evaluation were compared with the results from the various decommissioning experiences data or international/national decommissioning study. The comparison results have shown that the radioactive waste amount from Kori Unit 1 decommissioning was much less than those from the plants decommissioned in U.S. and was comparable to those from the plants in Europe. This result comes from the difference of disposal cost and clearance criteria (i.e., free release level) between U.S. and non-U.S. The preliminary evaluation performed using the methodology established in this study will be useful as an important information in establishing the decommissioning planning for the decommissioning schedule and waste management strategy establishment including the transportation, packaging, handling, and disposal of radioactive wastes.
Consideration of Failed Fuel Detector Location through Computational Flow Dynamics Analysis on Primary Cooling System Flow with Two Outlets
Failed fuel detector (FFD) in research reactor is a very crucial instrument to detect the anomaly from failed fuels in the early stage around primary cooling system (PCS) outlet prior to the decay tank. FFD is considered as a mandatory sensor to ensure the integrity of fuel assemblies and mitigate the consequence from a failed fuel accident. For the effective function of FFD, the location of them should be determined by contemplating the effect from coolant flow around two outlets. For this, the analysis on computational flow dynamics (CFD) should be first performed how the coolant outlet flow including radioactive materials from failed fuels are mixed and discharged through the outlet plenum within certain seconds. The analysis result shows that the outlet flow is well mixed regardless of the position of failed fuel and ultimately illustrates the effect of detector location.
Investigation of the Effects of Plaster on Radiation Doses Given to Patients
In this work, it is aimed to measure the total attenuation coefficients (TACs) of plaster materials using different geometries of the plaster, field sizes, and photon beam energies. The percent depth dose measurements were made using X-rays at 6 MV and 18 MV from the linear accelerator in order to plan the probable radiation dose to be given to the patient wearing a plaster cast. By changing the thickness of tissue equivalent solid phantom with and without plaster, the linear attenuation coefficients were experimentally determined for (5x5) cm2, (10x10) cm2 and (15x15) cm2 areas and investigated the effect of plaster to dose. It was shown that the TACs are decreasing while energy is increasing. The TAC of plaster was also calculated by using the NIST X-ray program and compared with the measured values. The TAC of solid phantom with plaster was found to be larger than without plaster. This means that dmax is very close to the skin and that in these situations plaster has a bolus effect, increasing the skin's dose.
Neutron Calculations of 18 MV Electron Linear Accelerator by Using Monte Carlo Method
In this study, the 18 MV medical electron linear accelerator was simulated with the MCNP code, which is calculated by the Monte Carlo method. Dosimetric quality controls were made by comparing simulation results with experimental and theoretical values. Medical linear accelerators are based on the principle of accelerating electrons broken from a metal into the electromagnetic field. Electrons reaching the desired kinetic energy come out of the device as an electron beam for electron therapy. When photon therapy is applied, high-energy electrons are hit on a target, and bremsstrahlung X-rays are produced.
The contribution of the linear accelerator to the photoneutron production of the head components was calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The most of the neutron production occurs in the primary collimator, target, and secondary collimator. Neutron fluxes were calculated at the surface of water phantom and the depths of 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm in the filtered system for the 10x10 cm² irradiation field. It was determined that there was a steady decrease in fast neutron flux with depth.
Neutronic Calculations for Central Test Loop in Heavy Water Research Reactor
One of the experimental facilities of the heavy water research reactor is the central test loop (C.T.L). It is located along the central axial line of the vessel, and therefore will highly affect the neutronic parameters of the reactor, so from the neutronics point of view, C.T.L is the most important facility. It is mainly designed for fuel testing, thought other applications such as radioisotope production and neutron activation, can be imagine for it. All of the simulations were performed by MCNPX2.6. As a first step towards C.T.L analysis, the effect of D2O-filled, H2O-filled, and He-filled C.T.L on the effective multiplication factor (Keff.), have been evaluated. According to results, H2O-filled C.T.L has a higher thermal neutron, while He-filled C.T.L includes more resonance neutrons. In the next step thermal and total axial neutron fluxes, were calculated and used as the comparison parameters. The core without C.T.L (C.T.L replaced by heavy water) is selected as the reference case, and the effect of all other cases is calculated according to that.
Evaluation of Mito-Uncoupler Induced Hyper Metabolic and Aggressive Phenotype in Glioma Cells
One of the most common signatures of highly malignant gliomas is their capacity to metabolize more glucose to lactic acid than normal brain tissues, even under normoxic conditions (Warburg effect), indicating that aerobic glycolysis is constitutively upregulated through stable genetic or epigenetic changes. However, oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) is also required to maintain the mitochondrial membrane potential for tumor cell survival. In the process of tumorigenesis, tumor cells during fastest growth rate exhibit both high glycolytic and high OxPhos. Therefore, metabolically reprogrammed cancer cells with combination of both aerobic glycolysis and altered OxPhos develop a robust metabolic phenotype, which confers a selective growth advantage. In our study, we grew the high glycolytic BMG-1 (glioma) cells with continuous exposure of mitochondrial uncoupler 2, 4, dinitro phenol (DNP) for 10 passages to obtain a phenotype of high glycolysis with enhanced altered OxPhos. We found that OxPhos modified BMG (OPMBMG) cells has similar growth rate and cell cycle distribution but high mitochondrial mass and functional enzymatic activity than parental cells. In in-vitro studies, OPMBMG cells showed enhanced invasion, proliferation and migration properties. Moreover, it also showed enhanced angiogenesis in matrigel plug assay. Xenografted tumors from OPMBMG cells showed reduced latent period, faster growth rate and nearly five folds reduction in the tumor take in nude mice compared to BMG-1 cells, suggesting that robust metabolic phenotype facilitates tumor formation and growth. OPMBMG cells which were found radio-resistant, showed enhanced radio-sensitization by 2-DG as compared to the parental BMG-1 cells. This study suggests that metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells enhances the potential of migration, invasion and proliferation. It also strengthens the cancer cells to escape the death processes, conferring resistance to therapeutic modalities. Our data also suggest that combining metabolic inhibitors like 2-DG with conventional therapeutic modalities can sensitize such metabolically aggressive cancer cells more than the therapies alone.
Using SNAP and RADTRAD to Establish the Analysis Model for Maanshan PWR Plant
In this study, we focus on the establishment of the analysis model for Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) by using RADTRAD and SNAP codes with the FSAR, manuals, and other data. In order to evaluate the cumulative dose at the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB) and Low Population Zone (LPZ) outer boundary, Maanshan NPP RADTRAD/SNAP model was used to perform the analysis of the DBA LOCA case. The analysis results of RADTRAD were similar to FSAR data. These analysis results were lower than the failure criteria of 10 CFR 100.11 (a total radiation dose to the whole body, 250 mSv; a total radiation dose to the thyroid from iodine exposure, 3000 mSv).
Investigation of Pu-238 Heat Source Modifications to Increase Power Output through (α,N) Reaction-Induced Fission
The objective of this study is to improve upon the current ²³⁸PuO₂ fuel technology for space and defense applications. Modern RTGs (radioisotope thermoelectric generators) utilize the heat generated from the radioactive decay of ²³⁸Pu to create heat and electricity for long term and remote missions. Application of RTG technology is limited by the scarcity and expense of producing the isotope, as well as the power output which is limited to only a few hundred watts. The scarcity and expense make the efficient use of ²³⁸Pu absolutely necessary. By utilizing the decay of ²³⁸Pu, not only to produce heat directly but to also indirectly induce fission in ²³⁹Pu (which is already present within currently used fuel), it is possible to see large increases in temperature which allows for a more efficient conversion to electricity and a higher power-to-weight ratio. This concept can reduce the quantity of ²³⁸Pu necessary for these missions, potentially saving millions on investment, while yielding higher power output. Current work investigating radioisotope power systems have focused on improving efficiency of the thermoelectric components and replacing systems which produce heat by virtue of natural decay with fission reactors. The technical feasibility of utilizing (α,n) reactions to induce fission within current radioisotopic fuels has not been investigated in any appreciable detail, and our study aims to thoroughly investigate the performance of many such designs, develop those with highest capabilities, and facilitate experimental testing of these designs. In order to determine the specific design parameters that maximize power output and the efficient use of ²³⁸Pu for future RTG units, MCNP6 simulations have been used to characterize the effects of modifying fuel composition, geometry, and porosity, as well as introducing neutron moderating, reflecting, and shielding materials to the system. Although this project is currently in the preliminary stages, the final deliverables will include sophisticated designs and simulation models that define all characteristics of multiple novel RTG fuels, detailed enough to allow immediate fabrication and testing. Preliminary work has consisted of developing a benchmark model to accurately represent the ²³⁸PuO₂ pellets currently in use by NASA; this model utilizes the alpha transport capabilities of MCNP6 and agrees well with experimental data. In addition, several models have been developed by varying specific parameters to investigate their effect on (α,n) and (n,fi ssion) reaction rates. Current practices in fuel processing are to exchange out the small portion of naturally occurring ¹⁸O and ¹⁷O to limit (α,n) reactions and avoid unnecessary neutron production. However, we have shown that enriching the oxide in ¹⁸O introduces a sufficient (α,n) reaction rate to support significant fission rates. For example, subcritical fission rates above 10⁸ f/cm³-s are easily achievable in cylindrical ²³⁸PuO₂ fuel pellets with a ¹⁸O enrichment of 100%, given an increase in size and a ⁹Be clad. Many viable designs exist and our intent is to discuss current results and future endeavors on this project.
Using HABIT to Establish the Chemicals Analysis Methodology for Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant
In this research, the HABIT analysis methodology was established for Maanshan nuclear power plant (NPP). The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), reports, and other data were used in this study. To evaluate the control room habitability under the CO2 storage burst, the HABIT methodology was used to perform this analysis. The HABIT result was below the R.G. 1.78 failure criteria. This indicates that Maanshan NPP habitability can be maintained. Additionally, the sensitivity study of the parameters (wind speed, atmospheric stability classification, air temperature, and control room intake flow rate) was also performed in this research.