International Science Index

International Journal of law and political sciences

216
49892
The Effectiveness of the Workers' Constitutional Rights of Citizenship as One of the Embodiments of the Democratic and Social State of the Brazilian Law
Abstract:
By observing the Brazilian labor reality, considered as degrading and oppressive, as well as responsible for creating obstacles to rights, this paper is aimed at demonstrating the obligatoriness of complying with the Constitution, as an effective instrument of the Democratic and Social State of Law established in the country since 1988, which identifies and determines the recognition of a single type of citizenship, as representation of equality, social inclusion and human dignity. To achieve this purpose, that is, to awake to a new culture focused on human respect / fundamental rights engraved in the Brazilian Constitution, doctrinal works, case law and labor courts (how they work) will be used as methodology. Thus, by concluding that there is a need for a change in behavior, by employers, intended to respect the Constitution, especially with regard to the concept and citizenship content if an attempt is made to achieve as a result few steps effectiveness of fundamental social rights protective of the Brazilian working class. Thus, by analyzing the Brazilian labor reality, the result is the employers' denial of full and single citizenship of workers, whose effects are directly related to the violation of rights, which leads to the conclusion that there is a need for a change in the behavior regarding the respect for the Constitution, especially concerning the effectiveness of fundamental social rights, which protect the working class in Brazil.
215
47729
Protecting Right to Life and Combating Terrorism through the Instrument of Law in Nigeria
Abstract:
The right to life is a moral principle based on the belief that a human being has the right to life and, in particular, should not be unjustly killed by another human being. However, the most worrisome security challenge in Nigeria which has cut short the lives of innocent Nigerians is the activities of the dreaded terrorist group known as Boko Haram (which means Western Education is a sin). Between 2004 till date, over 15000 people have been gruesomely murdered by this terrorist group. However, despite the facts that suspected terrorists are arrested and paraded almost on a daily basis, cases of terrorism in our courts in Nigeria today have not been expeditiously dealt with by the judiciary. This paper examines the concept of right to life. The right to life is an inherent right for each and every person. From his or her birth; the individual is considered a living being that must be protected. The right to life connotes also right to live and grow in a healthy environment where there is appropriate health care, qualitative education and adequate security of lives and property. The paper also examines the fight against terrorism and the duty of the government to protect right to life of every individual even in the midst of the fight against terrorism. The paper further reviews the Terrorism Act 2011(as amended) and the clogs in the wheel of prosecution of suspected terrorists. The paper concludes that since terrorism is a new security challenge, to prevent conflict of interest, only one security agency should be trained and saddled with the responsibility of prosecuting suspected terrorist, Law should be enacted to compel intelligent gathering and sharing of information among security agencies and in addition, a special court should be established to deal expeditiously with cases of terrorism in Nigeria.
214
48231
India, Pakistan and the US in the Afghan Imbroglio: The Way Forward
Abstract:
When insurgency erupted in Kashmir in 1989, it was quickly backed by Pakistan. Kashmir witnessed terrorism for more than a decade till 2004 when Indian forces decimated militancy. After the US pressure in 1992, terrorist training camps of Pakistan shifted to Afghanistan and al Qaeda and the Taliban had taken over training of Kashmiri militants in Afghanistan after 1997 as part of their global jihad. The Indo-Pak rivalry over Kashmir dispute had taken a new turn in the aftermath of 9/11 developments. Islamabad viewed its Afghan policy through the prism of denying India any advantage in Kabul. Pakistan was successful in refuting Indian presence in Kabul for a decade through the Taliban. After the 9/11 attacks the Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) saw Northern Alliance, supported by the Americans and all of Pakistan’s regional rivals – India, Iran, and Russia – as claiming victory in Kabul. For Pakistan’s military regime, this was a strategic disaster and prompted the ISI to give refuge to the escaping Taliban, while denying full support to Hamid Karzai. The new development in Afghanistan prompted India to establish a foothold it had lost nearly a decade earlier. India established diplomatic contacts with Afghanistan; supported the Karzai government and funded aid programs. Pakistan alleged that Indian agents are training Baloch and Sindhi dissidents in Pakistan through Afghanistan. Kabul had suddenly become the new Kashmir – the new battleground for India-Pakistan rivalry.
213
44721
Interpretation of Medical Negligence under Consumer Laws
Abstract:
Decided cases of medical negligence, mostly are not settled in the lower courts. Majority of them reach up to the apex courts. This is mostly due to different interpretations of the term medical negligence. After studying various cases of medical negligence it is found that in most of the cases the doctors/hospitals are not held liable. There are different interpretations of law concerning medical services. Globally the principles deciding medical negligence are same, viz. Legal duty of care - breach of that duty - direct causation resulting in damages. Since ordinary negligence is not punishable by law, doctors/hospitals have defenses to save themselves from liability. Complaints of negligence come to the courts whose judges mostly are not oriented with medical services or health sciences. Matters of medical negligence are decided on the basic principles of reasonableness and prudence or by relying on the expert’s opinion. Deciding reasonableness or prudence is a complex issue in case of medical services. Again expert opinion is also questionable as an expert in case of medical negligence is appointed from the same field and same faculty. There is a chance of favoritism to the doctor/hospital. The concept of vicarious liability is not widely applied to in many of the medical negligence cases. Established cases used as precedents were studied to understand the basic principles in deciding medical negligence. This paper evaluates the present criteria in interpreting medical negligence and concludes with suggesting reforms required to be made in deciding matters of medical negligence under the consumer laws.
212
44833
The Ordinary Way of the Appeal in Penalty Part
Abstract:
The priciest thing in human life since his birth is his freedom, basing on this idea, the conflict exists till now, the fight against oppression, injustice, tyranny and slavery, searching for freedom and political resistances, and this makes the freedom is deeply related to the defense for its existence all over years. This project attempts using any way to preserve this freedom, and building and maintaining bases and rules to organize this life. Appeal is a one of the most important method that human uses to protect his freedom, and we will mention in this thesis our attempt to clarify this aspect to the individual. We can say that the law does not know just one color or one logic, and is not based on one rule to be taken by heart, but the law is neutrality, the diversity, abstraction and diligence diversity. The penal law is a valued law and it deserves to be studied and searched more… so that to attempt to master it. Our thesis is just a brief explanation of an important point in this law, where we attempt to clarify and simplify the image to the normal person, so that he can preserve his rights, and we hope that we had succeeded to choose the right topic for that.
211
46675
United against Drugs: Divergent Counternarcotic Strategies of US Government Agencies in Afghanistan
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the counternarcotic strategies of US government agencies in Afghanistan from 2001-2014. Despite a heavy US presence in the country, Afghanistan currently accounts for 80% of opium production worldwide and remains a key contributor to the global drug market. This paper argues that the divergent counternarcotic strategies of various US government agencies on the ground in Afghanistan are a product of the organizational differences amongst those agencies and that those differences can challenge the implementation of counternarcotics policies in Afghanistan. To gain a more in-depth perspective, this paper analyzes the counternarcotic strategies of two US government agencies in Afghanistan; the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Utilizing the framework of the organizational behavior model of organizational theory, this paper will highlight the varying organizational interests, opinions, standard operating procedures, and routines of both of the government agencies. The paper concludes with implications on counternarcotics, as well as the counterinsurgency in Afghanistan and provides recommendations for future research on foreign policy and counternarcotics.
210
47811
International Law and Its Role in Protecting Human Rights
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Abstract:
To determine the content of human rights norms in national constitutions, international law - in the form of treaties, declarations and case law from international monitoring bodies, and comparative case law from other countries - is often discussed in the judgments of domestic courts. This paper explores the extent to which international law has influenced domestic human rights case law in Africa. The paper first explores how the human rights provisions of African constitutions came into being before turning to the role played by international law in the constitutional order of various African states and how treaties, declarations and findings of international monitoring bodies have been used in African countries to interpret and expand on constitutional human rights provisions.
209
41826
Family Homicide: A Comparison of Rural and Urban Communities in California
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Abstract:
This study compares the differences in social dynamics between rural and urban areas in California to explain homicides involving family members. It is hypothesized that rural homicides are better explained by social isolation and lack of intervention resources, whereas urban homicides are attributed to social disadvantage factors. Several critical social dynamics including social isolation, social disadvantages, acculturation, and intervention resources were entered in a hierarchical linear model (HLM) to examine whether county-level factors affect how each specific dynamic performs at the ZIP code level, a proxy measure for communities. Homicide data are from the Supplementary Homicide Report for all 58 counties in California from 1997 to 1999. Predictors at both the county and ZIP code levels are derived from the 2000 US census. Preliminary results from a HLM analysis show that social isolation is a significant but moderate predictor to explain rural family homicide and various social disadvantage factors are significant factors accounting for urban family homicide. Acculturation has little impact. Rurality and urbanity appear to interact with various social dynamics in explaining family homicide. The implications for prevention at both the county and community level as well as directions for future study on the differences between rural and urban locales are explored in the paper.
208
49753
Preventing and Coping Strategies for Cyber Bullying and Cyber Victimization
Abstract:
Although there are several advantages of information and communication technologies, they cause some problems like cyber bullying and cyber victimization. Cyber bullying and cyber victimization have lots of negative effects on people. There are lots of different strategies to prevent cyber bullying and victimization. This study was conducted to provide information about the strategies that are used to prevent cyber bullying and cyber victimization. 120 (60 women, 60 men) university students whose ages are between 18 and 35 participated this study. According to findings of this study, men are more prone to cyber bullying than women. Moreover, men are also more prone to cyber victimization than women.
207
49635
The Communist Party of China’s Approach to Human Rights and the Death Penalty in China since 1979
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Abstract:
The issues of human rights and death penalty are always drawing attentions from international scholars, critics and observers, activities and Chinese scholars, and most of them looking at these problems are just doing with such legal or political from a single perspective, but the real relationship between Chinese political regime and legislation is often ignored. In accordance with the Constitution of P.R.C., Communist Party of China (CPC) does not merely play a key role in political field, but in legislation and law enforcement as well. Therefore, the legislation has to implement the party’s theory and outlook, and realize the party’s policies. So is the death penalty system, though it is only concrete punishment system. Considering this point, basic upon the introducing the relationship between CPC and legislation, this paper would like to explore the shifting of CPC’s outlook on human rights and the death penalty system changes in different eras. In Maoist era, the issue of human rights was rejected and deemed as an exclusion zone, and the death penalty was unjustifiably imposed; human rights were politically recognized and accepted in Deng era, but CPC has its own viewpoints on it. CPC emphasized on national security and stability in that era, and the individual human rights weren’t taken correspondingly and reasonably account of. The death penalty was abused and deemed as an important measure to control crime. In post-Deng, human rights were gradually developed and recognized. The term of ‘state respect and protect human rights’ is contained in Constitution of P.R.C., and the individual human rights are gradually valued, but the CPC still focus on state security, development, and stability, the individual right to life hasn’t been enough valued like the right to substance. Although the steps of reforming death penalty are taking, there are still 46 crimes punishable by death. CPC should change its outlook and pay more attention to the right to life, and try to abolish death penalty de facto and de jure.
206
40077
Opening up Government Datasets for Big Data Analysis to Support Policy Decisions
Abstract:
Policy makers are increasingly looking to make evidence-based decisions. Evidence-based decisions have historically used rigorous methodologies of empirical studies by research institutes, as well as less reliable immediate survey/polls often with limited sample sizes. As we move into the era of Big Data analytics, policy makers are looking to different methodologies to deliver reliable empirics in real-time. The question is not why did these people do this for the last 10 years, but why are these people doing this now, and if the this is undesirable, and how can we have an impact to promote change immediately. Big data analytics rely heavily on government data that has been released in to the public domain. The open data movement promises greater productivity and more efficient delivery of services; however, Australian government agencies remain reluctant to release their data to the general public. This paper considers the barriers to releasing government data as open data, and how these barriers might be overcome.
205
46838
Victims Legal Representation before International Criminal Court: Freedom of Choice and Role of Victims Legal Representatives
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Abstract:
Participation of a lawyer in any criminal proceedings on behalf of an accused person or a victim is essential to a fair trial. Legal representation is particularly crucial in proceedings before international tribunals, especially in the International Criminal Court. The paper thus focuses on the importance of the legal representation of victims and defendants before the ICC, as well as on the role of the legal representative in the proceedings before the court and the principle of freedom of choice of legal representatives. Also, the paper presents a short overview of the significance of legal representatives for victims and the necessity to protect their primary role in the ICC system, and ensure that it is coherent and respectful of victims’ rights. Victim participation is an important part of the ICC Statute and it is designed to help ensure that those most affected by the crimes are able to engage with the Court. Proper and quality legal representation ensures meaningful participation of victims at stages of the proceedings before ICC. Finally, the paper acknowledges the role of legal representatives during the pre-trial, trial and post-trial phase, the different modalities in selecting the legal representatives as well as balancing victims’ participation with the right of the accused to a fair trial.
204
47244
A Case Study of the Saudi Arabian Investment Regime
Authors:
Abstract:
The low global oil price poses economic challenges for Saudi Arabia, as oil revenues still make up a great percentage of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). At the end of 2014, the Consultative Assembly considered a report from the Committee on Economic Affairs and Energy which highlights that the economy had not been successfully diversified. There thus exist ample reasons for modernising the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) regime, primarily to achieve and maintain prosperity and facilitate peace in the region. Therefore, this paper aims at identifying specific problems with the existing FDI regime in Saudi Arabia and subsequently some solutions to those problems. Saudi Arabia adopted its first specific legislation in 1956, which imposed significant restrictions on foreign ownership. Since then, Saudi Arabia has modernised its FDI framework with the passing of the Foreign Capital Investment Act 1979 and the Foreign Investment Law2000 and the accompanying Executive Rules 2000 and the recently adopted Implementing Regulations 2014.Nonetheless, the legislative provisions contain various gaps and the failure to address these gaps creates risks and uncertainty for investors. For instance, the important topic of mergers and acquisitions has not been addressed in the Foreign Investment Law 2000. The circumstances in which expropriation can be considered to be in the public interest have not been defined. Moreover, Saudi Arabia has not entered into many bilateral investment treaties (BITs). This has an effect on the investment climate, as foreign investors are not afforded typical rights. An analysis of the BITs which have been entered into reveals that the national treatment standard and stabilisation, umbrella or renegotiation provisions have not been included. This is problematic since the 2000 Act does not spell out the applicable standard in accordance with which foreign investors should be treated. Moreover, the most-favoured-nation (MFN) or fair and equitable treatment (FET) standards have not been put on a statutory footing. Whilst the Arbitration Act 2012 permits that investment disputes can be internationalised, restrictions have been retained. The effectiveness of international arbitration is further undermined because Saudi Arabia does not enforce non-domestic arbitral awards which contravene public policy. Furthermore, the reservation to the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes allows Saudi Arabia to exclude petroleum and sovereign disputes. Interviews with foreign investors, who operate in Saudi Arabia highlight additional issues. Saudi Arabia ought not to procrastinate far-reaching structural reforms.
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203
46857
Sociodemographic Approach to Juveniles Directed to Delinquent Behaviour in Zonguldak
Abstract:
Child delinquency has been increasing in our country as well as in many countries of the world. Child intelligence, abilities, family's social environment and life conditions are the factors which affect the child delinquency. The reports of 73 cases ages of 12-15 which were sent to the University of Bulent Ecevit, School of Medicine, Forensic Medicine Department between January 2011-September 2015, in order to evaluate medically, children pushed to crime by the judicial authorities are examined in terms of age, gender, educational background, place of residence, reasons for being sent, whether it’s a repeating crime or not, type of intelligence test, results revealed by forensic medicine and department of mental and neurological disorders. When children pushed to crime examined in terms of their crimes, the most common type of crime was identified as theft (n = 24). The crimes with 19 physical attacks and 12 sexual abuse were seen. Following that other 12 crimes were determined as damage to property, hemp crop, insult, incitement to crime, forgery of private documents, illegal excavation, threatening, involuntary manslaughter. The alleged crimes in 6 cases were more than one. The children pushed to crime are one of the major social problems of many countries. In this sense, it is not only the responsibility of government agencies to protect children pushed to crime, also, the civil society organizations should take place in this struggle.
202
43043
Using Printouts as Social Media Evidence and Its Authentication in the Courtroom
Abstract:
Different from traditional objective evidence, social media evidence has its own characteristics with easily tampering, recoverability, and cannot be read without using other devices (such as a computer). Simply taking a screenshot from social network sites must be questioned its original identity. When the police search and seizure digital information, a common way they use is to directly print out digital data obtained and ask the signature of the parties at the presence, without taking original digital data back. In addition to the issue on its original identity, this conduct to obtain evidence may have another two results. First, it will easily allege that is tampering evidence because the police wanted to frame the suspect and falsified evidence. Second, it is not easy to discovery hidden information. The core evidence associated with crime may not appear in the contents of files. Through discovery the original file, data related to the file, such as the original producer, creation time, modification date, and even GPS location display can be revealed from hidden information. Therefore, how to show this kind of evidence in the courtroom will be arguably the most important task for ruling social media evidence. This article, first, will introduce forensic software, like EnCase, TCT, FTK, and analyze their function to prove the identity with another digital data. Then turning back to the court, the second part of this article will discuss legal standard for authentication of social media evidence and application of that forensic software in the courtroom. As the conclusion, this article will provide a rethinking, that is, what kind of authenticity is this rule of evidence chase for. Does legal system automatically operate the transcription of scientific knowledge? Or furthermore, it wants to better render justice, not only under scientific fact, but through multivariate debating.
201
45691
To Individualisation of Subject, Donar, by Determination of Serological Markers from Obtain Biological Fluid at Crime Scene
Abstract:
For the present study samples was collected from 20 donors with unknown blood group and secretor status had been determined from saliva by using biological fluid. ABO typing on the concentrated samples was successfully performed after 1 month of storage. Urine stained clothing samples are often submitted to forensic science laboratories for ABH blood group antigen determination. The serogenetic markers of semen stains submitted can be used to determine the origin of any of these samples. ABH blood group substances have previously been identified from urine. ABH blood group substance is low in urine in comparison with other body fluids.
200
46270
Pesticides Regulations: An Urgent Need for Legal Reform in India
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Abstract:
Pesticides are a class of Biocide, whose use in agriculture has led to a momentous increase in the yield of crops, fruits and vegetables all over the word and its effective use has also been the pillars of success for the Green Revolution. However, the incessant use of pesticides has now reached alarming levels. In 2007 alone, the world used an estimated 2.4 million tons of pesticides. Despite its tremendous benefits for agriculture, pesticide has been one of the major reasons for degradation of the natural environment and undesirable effects on human beings. It has not only caused damage to human health, but has also threatened the survival of few birds and animal species. In India, the sale and usage of banned pesticide, increased usage of pesticides and its inadequate labeling has caused Bio magnification, which is causing deleterious effects on child development, resulting in stunted mental and physical growth. This paper aims to bring to shed light on major loopholes in the current pesticide regulations such as the Insecticide Act of 1968. It further discusses loopholes in the yet to be tabled Pesticides Management Bill of 2008. It discusses and arrives at potential amendments to the laws and regulations concerning pesticides; that cannot only be applied to the Indian subcontinent but other developing countries as well.
199
35754
Testifying in Court as a Victim of Crime for Persons with Little or No Functional Speech: Vocabulary Implications
Abstract:
People with disabilities are at a high risk of becoming victims of crime. Individuals with little or no functional speech (LNFS) face an even higher risk. One way of reducing the risk of remaining a victim of crime is to face the alleged perpetrator in court as a witness – therefore it is important for a person with LNFS who has been a victim of crime to have the required vocabulary to testify in court. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the core and fringe legal vocabulary required by illiterate victims of crime, who have little or no functional speech, to testify in court as witnesses. A mixed-method, the exploratory sequential design consisting of two distinct phases was used to address the aim of the research. The first phase was of a qualitative nature and included two different data sources, namely in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. The overall aim of this phase was to identify and describe core and fringe legal vocabulary and to develop a measurement instrument based on these results. Results from Phase 1 were used in Phase 2, the quantitative phase, during which the measurement instrument (a custom-designed questionnaire) was socially validated. The results produced six distinct vocabulary categories that represent the legal core vocabulary and 99 words that represent the legal fringe vocabulary. The findings suggested that communication boards should be individualised to the individual and the specific crime. It is believed that the vocabulary lists developed in this study act as a valid and reliable springboard from which communication boards can be developed. Recommendations were therefore made to develop an Alternative and Augmentative Communication Resource Tool Kit to assist the legal justice system.
198
38097
The Effect of the Cultural Constraint on the Reform of Corporate Governance: The Observation of Taiwan's Efforts to Transform Its Corporate Governance
Abstract:
Under the theory of La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, Shleifer, and Vishny, if a country can increase its legal protections for minority shareholders, the country can develop an ideal securities market that only arises under the dispersed ownership corporate governance. However, the path-dependence scholarship, such as Lucian Arye Bebchuk and Mark J. Roe, presented a different view with LLS&V. They pointed out that the initial framework of the ownership structure and traditional culture will prevent the change of the corporate governance structure through legal reform. This paper contends that traditional culture factors as an important aspect when forming the corporate governance structure. However, it is not impossible for the government to change its traditional corporate governance structure and traditional culture because the culture does not remain intact. Culture evolves with time. The occurrence of the important events will affect the people’s psychological process. The psychological process affects the evolution of culture. The new cultural norms can help defeat the force of the traditional culture and the resistance from the initial corporate ownership structure. Using Taiwan as an example, through analyzing the historical background, related corporate rules and the reactions of adoption new rules from the media, this paper try to show that Taiwan’s culture norms do not remain intact and have changed with time. It further provides that the culture is not always the hurdle for the adoption of the dispersed ownership corporate governance structure as the culture can change. A new culture can provide strong support for the adoption of the new corporate governance structure.
197
40163
Nudging the Criminal Justice System into Listening to Crime Victims in Plea Agreements
Abstract:
Most criminal cases end with a plea agreement, an issue whose many aspects have been discussed extensively in legal literature. One important feature, however, has gained little notice, and that is crime victims’ place in plea agreements following the federal Crime Victims Rights Act of 2004. This law has provided victims some meaningful and potentially revolutionary rights, including the right to be heard in the proceeding and a right to appeal against a decision made while ignoring the victim’s rights. While victims’ rights literature has always emphasized the importance of such right, references to this provision in the general literature about plea agreements are sparse, if existing at all. Furthermore, there are a few cases only mentioning this right. This article purports to bridge between these two bodies of legal thinking – the vast literature concerning plea agreements and victims’ rights research– by using behavioral economics. The article will, firstly, trace the possible structural reasons for the failure of this right to be materialized. Relevant incentives of all actors involved will be identified as well as their inherent consequential processes that lead to the victims’ rights malfunction. Secondly, the article will use nudge theory in order to suggest solutions that will enhance incentives for the repeat players in the system (prosecution, judges, defense attorneys) and lead to the strengthening of weaker group’s interests – the crime victims. Behavioral psychology literature recognizes that the framework in which an individual confronts a decision can significantly influence his decision. Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein developed the idea of ‘choice architecture’ - ‘the context in which people make decisions’ - which can be manipulated to make particular decisions more likely. Choice architectures can be changed by adjusting ‘nudges,’ influential factors that help shape human behavior, without negating their free choice. The nudges require decision makers to make choices instead of providing a familiar default option. In accordance with this theory, we suggest a rule, whereby a judge should inquire the victim’s view prior to accepting the plea. This suggestion leaves the judge’s discretion intact; while at the same time nudges her not to go directly to the default decision, i.e. automatically accepting the plea. Creating nudges that force actors to make choices is particularly significant when an actor intends to deviate from routine behaviors but experiences significant time constraints, as in the case of judges and plea bargains. The article finally recognizes some far reaching possible results of the suggestion. These include meaningful changes to the earlier stages of criminal process even before reaching court, in line with the current criticism of the plea agreements machinery.
196
40176
Bedouin Dispersion in Israel: Between Sustainable Development and Social Non-Recognition
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Abstract:
The subject of Bedouin dispersion has accompanied the State of Israel from the day of its establishment. From a legal point of view, this subject has offered a launchpad for creative judicial decisions. Thus, for example, the first court decision in Israel to recognize affirmative action (Avitan), dealt with a petition submitted by a Jew appealing the refusal of the State to recognize the Petitioner’s entitlement to the long-term lease of a plot designated for Bedouins. The Supreme Court dismissed the petition, holding that there existed a public interest in assisting Bedouin to establish permanent urban settlements, an interest which justifies giving them preference by selling them plots at subsidized prices. In another case (The Forum for Coexistence in the Negev) the Supreme Court extended equitable relief for the purpose of constructing a bridge, even though the construction infringed the Law, in order to allow the children of dispersed Bedouin to reach school. Against this background, the recent verdict, delivered during the Protective Edge military campaign, which dismissed a petition aimed at forcing the State to spread out Protective Structures in Bedouin villages in the Negev against the risk of being hit from missiles launched from Gaza (Abu Afash) is disappointing. Even if, in arguendo, no selective discrimination was involved in the State’s decision not to provide such protection, the decision, and its affirmation by the Court, is problematic when examined through the prism of the Theory of Recognition. The article analyses the issue by tools of theory of Recognition, according to which people develop their identities through mutual relations of recognition in different fields. In the social context, the path to recognition is cognitive respect, which is provided by means of legal rights. By seeing other participants in Society as bearers of rights and obligations, the individual develops an understanding of his legal condition as reflected in the attitude to others. Consequently, even if the Court’s decision may be justified on strict legal grounds, the fact that Jewish settlements were protected during the military operation, whereas Bedouin villages were not, is a setback in the struggle to make the Bedouin citizens with equal rights in Israeli society. As the Court held, ‘Beyond their protective function, the Migunit [Protective Structures] may make a moral and psychological contribution that should not be undervalued’. This contribution is one that the Bedouin did not receive in the Abu Afash verdict. The basic thesis is that the Court’s verdict analyzed above clearly demonstrates that the reliance on classical liberal instruments (e.g., equality) cannot secure full appreciation of all aspects of Bedouin life, and hence it can in fact prejudice them. Therefore, elements of the recognition theory should be added, in order to find the channel for cognitive dignity, thereby advancing the Bedouins’ ability to perceive themselves as equal human beings in the Israeli society.
195
44551
The Lawfulness of the Determination of a Criminal Suspect as a New Pre-Trial's Object
Abstract:
In Indonesia, pre-trial (in Indonesia called ‘praperadilan’) is a mechanism that is regulated on Criminal Procedure Code as a form of oversight and check and balance on the process at the stage of inquiry, investigation, and prosecution, so that actions taken by the State (in this case, the police and prosecutor) is carried out in accordance with its authority and not violate human rights. Article 77 of the Criminal Procedure Code has been set that the object may be filed pretrial is just about the lawfulness of the arrest, the lawfulness of the detention, and the legitimacy of stopping investigation and prosecution. However, since the beginning of 2015, there was a further object which is then entered as a pre-trial object, namely the lawfulness of the determination of a criminal suspect. This is because the determination of the suspect is considered as one of the forceful measures that could restrict the rights of a person, so the implementation should have oversight and checks and balances by the courts. This paper will discuss the development of the pre-trial on the lawfulness of the determination of a criminal suspect as a new judicial mechanism as the protection of human rights in Indonesia.
194
50008
Constitution and Self-Consciousness in Hegel's Philosophy
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Abstract:
According to Hegel’s philosophy, constitution of any given nation is the best expression of its national Self-Consciousness. Since constitution is the place in which freedom and Universal Rights is expressed, and since the essence of Self-consciousness is freedom, the development of self-consciousness and consequently freedom, is the direct cause of the development of constitution. Self-consciousness develops in the human history according to its own internal and external dialectic; therefore, it is essentially a dynamic phenomenon. However, constitution is supposed to be a stable foundation for the legal system of state and society. Therefore, the dilemma is: how the dynamic and contradictory nature of Self-Consciousness is the foundation of constitution that supposed to be the stable base of legal system of state and society. According to Hegel’s philosophy, the contradiction between the dynamic self- consciousness and the static constitution and state has an essential role in the formation of social movements within any given state. Self-consciousness is the phenomenology of Spirit in the human history. Subjective Spirit expresses itself in the different shapes of Self-consciousness in human spirit. These different shapes of self-consciousness must be identical with its contradiction; Objective Spirit. State is the highest form of the objective Spirit. Therefore, state and its foundation namely ‘constitution’ must be identical with Self-consciousness. "Spirit cannot remain forever alienated from its expression." Hegel states. Self-consciousness is the Subjective Spirit, it freely develops according to its internal and external contradictions, but since it must be always identical with its expression namely constitution, its development results to alienation. They way by which self-consciousness became again identical with the constitution determines the nature of legal and political development of any given society and state. In the democratic states, self-consciousness shows itself partially in the public opinion. In the process of election, this public opinion changes the ruling parties that construct the government. In democracies, self-consciousness or subjective spirit is in a dialectical relationship with state or the Objective Spirit. Therefore, it cannot remain alienated with its expression that is political system and its constitution. But, in the autocracies Self-consciousness cannot easily express itself in the government and its constitution. More Self-consciousness develops more it becomes alienated with its expression that is the state and its constitution. Rebel and revolution are the symptom of alienation of Spirit (self-consciousness) with its expression (state and its constitution).
193
47065
The Impact of the Russian Democratic Weaknesses on the International Society
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Abstract:
While the democratic rights of a citizen may be very clearly outlined in a country’s constitution, it’s not uncommon for political elite to undermine those rights and gain more power and control over a country than it is allowed by this constitution. Moreover, while such a change in some smaller states may not have a substantial impact on the international community, the same change in countries with vast resources and political influence, such as Russia, is always a considerable factor for the world policy. This article aims to research the weaknesses of the Russian democratic system and their effect on the international policy through the three key aspects: The Russian people’s ability to produce the required political will to control their government’s decisions, the current development of the Russian political environment, and the affection of this environment on the world community as a whole during the recent years. The used methodology is a narrative analysis of recent political events, official statistics, international investigations and media statements. As a result, the ever-widening gap between the people and the government becomes evidently seen, as well as the challenges it imposes on the political world arena, both current and those that still lie ahead of us.
192
46425
Banking Control Law 1966 in Saudi Arabia, Shortcomings and Development: A Comparative Study in Banking Supervision between the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency and the Bank of England
Abstract:
The paper examined the extent to which it was necessary for the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA), as a central bank, to update the Banking Control Law 1966 (BCL) in order to gain full independence, while ensuring that SAMA would have enough flexibility to develop the banking industry yet make sound decisions with regard to the issuance of new regulations related to banking supervision.Using a comparative study approach, the paper looked to find the best practices around these issues. The Bank of England, which was recently granted full independence, presented a good opportunity for a case study. The perspectives of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and commercial banks in Saudi Arabia are examined, including an analysis of their recommendations regarding SAMA regulations on banking supervision. This paper found several issues are important for SAMA as the central bank in a country which is a member of the G20, and which has recently faced unstable oil prices. The paper also discusses conflicts of interest which arose when the Saudi government became a shareholder in commercial banks while simultaneously regulating SAMA through the Ministry of Finance, resulting in a monopoly which disabled free competition in the banking market. The paper recommends further steps for SAMA to develop the banking industry, which is an important arm of Saudi’s economy, and examines the challenges SAMA faces in updating regulations such as the BCL under Sharia law. The author also suggests practical solutions to the difficulties. The paper found these difficulties could be avoiding them if SAMA focuses on Islamic banking product, and fixed the lacks of regulations of the related laws.
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46649
Modelling Ibuprofen with Human Albumin
Abstract:
The binding of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBU) to human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations within a fragmentation strategy. Crystallographic data for the IBU–HSA supramolecular complex shows that the ligand is confined to a large cavity at the subdomain IIIA and at the interface between the subdomains IIA and IIB, whose binding sites are FA3/FA4 and FA6, respectively. The interaction energy between the IBU molecule and each amino acid residue of these HSA binding pockets was calculated using the Molecular Fractionation with Conjugate Caps (MFCC) approach employing a dispersion corrected exchange–correlation functional. Our investigation shows that the total interaction energy of IBU bound to HSA at binding sites of the fatty acids FA3/FA4 (FA6) converges only for a pocket radius of at least 8.5 °A, mainly due to the action of residues Arg410, Lys414 and Ser489 (Lys351, Ser480 and Leu481) and residues in nonhydrophobic domains, namely Ile388, Phe395, Phe403, Leu407, Leu430, Val433, and Leu453 (Phe206, Ala210, Ala213, and Leu327), which is unusual. Our simulations are valuable for a better understanding of the binding mechanism of IBU to albumin and can lead to the rational design and the development of novel IBU-derived drugs with improved potency.
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46650
Charge Transport in Biological Molecules
Abstract:
The focus of this work is on the numerical investigation of the charge transport properties of the de novo-designed alpha3 polypeptide, as well as in its variants, all of them probed by gene engineering. The theoretical framework makes use of a tight-binding model Hamiltonian, together with ab-initio calculations within quantum chemistry simulation. The alpha3 polypeptide is a 21-residue with three repeats of the seven-residue amino acid sequence Leu-Glu-Thr-Leu-Ala-Lys-Ala, forming an alpha–helical bundle structure. Its variants are obtained by Ala→Gln substitution at the e (5th) and g (7th) position, respectively, of the alpha3 polypeptide amino acid sequence. Using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, it was observed that the alpha3 polypeptide and one of its variant do have the ability to form fibrous assemblies, while the other does not. Our main aim is to investigate whether or not the biased alpha3 polypeptide and its variants can be also identified by quantum charge transport measurements through current-voltage (IxV) curves as a pattern to characterize their fibrous assemblies. It was observed that each peptide has a characteristic current pattern, which may be distinguished by charge transport measurements, suggesting that it might be a useful tool for the development of biosensors.
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39741
Child Rights in the Context of Psychiatric Power
Abstract:
The modern psychiatric discourse proves the existence of the direct ties between the children's mental health and their success in life as adults. The unresolved mental health problems in childhood are likely to lead individuals to poverty, isolation, and social exclusion as stated by Marcus Richards. Such an approach justifies the involvement of children in the view of supervision and control of power. The discourse, related to the mental health of children, provides a tight impact of family, educational institutions and medical authorities on the child through any manifestations of his psychic, having signs of "abnormality.” Throughout the adult life, the individual continues to feel the pressure of power through legal, political, and economic institutions that also appeal to the mental health regulation. The juvenile law declares the equality of a child and an adult, but in fact simply delegates the powers of parents to impersonal social institutions of the guardianship, education, and social protection. The psychiatric power in this study is considered in accordance with the Michel Foucault’s concept of power as a manifestation of "positive" technologies of power, which include various manifestations of subjectivity, in particular children’s one, in a view of supervision and control of the state power. The main issue disclosed in this paper is how weakening of the parental authority, in the context of legislative ratification of the child rights, strengthens the other forms of power over children, especially the psychiatric power, which justifies and affects the children mancipation.
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47552
Start-Up: The Perception of Brazilian Entrepreneurs about the Start-Up Brasil Program
Abstract:
In Brazil, and more recently in the city of Fortaleza, there is a new form of entrepreneurship that is focused on the information and communication technology service sector and that draws the attention of young people, investors, governments, authors and media companies: it is known as the start-up movement. Today, it is considered to be a driving force behind the creative economy. Rooted on progressive discourse, the words enterprise and innovation seduce new economic agents motivated by success stories from Silicon Valley in America along with increasing commercial activity for digital goods and services. This article assesses, from a sociological point of view, the new productive wave problematized by the light of Manuel Castells’ informational capitalism. Considering the skeptical as well as the optimistic opinions about the impact of this new entrepreneurial rearrangement, the following question is asked: How Brazilian entrepreneurs evaluate public policy incentives for startups Brazilian Federal Government? The raised hypotheses are based on employability factors as well as cultural, economical, and political matters related to innovation and technology. This study has produced a nationwide quantitative assessment with a special focus on the reality of these Ceará firms; as well as comparative qualitative interviews on Brazilian experiences lived by identified agents. This article outlines the public incentive policy of the federal government, the Start-up Brasil Program, from the perspective of these companies and provides details as to the discipline methods of the new enterprising way born in the United States. The startups are very young companies that are headed towards the economic sustainment of the productive sector services. These companies are dropping the seeds that will produce the re-enchantment of young people and bring them back to participation in political debate; they provide relief and reheats the job market; and they produce a democratization of the entrepreneurial ‘Do-It-Yourself’ culture. They capitalize the pivot of the wall street wolves and of agents being charged for new masks. There are developmental logic’s prophylaxis in the face of dreadful innovation stagnation. The lack of continuity in Brazilian governmental politics and cultural nuances related to entrepreneurship are barring the desired regional success of this ecosystem.
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39478
There Is No Meaningful Opportunity in Meaningless Data: Why It Is Unconstitutional to Use Life Expectancy Tables in Post-Graham Sentences
Abstract:
The United States Supreme Court recently announced that it is unconstitutional to sentence a child to life without parole for non-homicide offenses, and that each child so situated must be afforded a meaningful opportunity for release from prison in his lifetime. The Court also declared that it is unconstitutional to impose a mandatory sentence of life without parole on a child for homicide offenses. Across the United States, attorneys and advocates continue to litigate issues surrounding the implementation of these legal principles. Some states have held that any sentence to a finite term of years, no matter how long, is not the same as ‘life’ and therefore does not violate the constitution. Other states have held that a sentence to a term of years that is less than the expected life of that particular child is not unconstitutional. In Colorado, the courts have routinely looked to life expectancy estimates from governmental organizations to determine how long a particular child is expected to live. They then compare that the date that the child is expected to be eligible for parole, and if the child is expected to still be living when he is eligible for parole, the sentence is deemed constitutional. This paper argues that it is inappropriate, reckless, unconstitutional and not scientifically sound to use such estimates in determining whether a child will have a meaningful opportunity for release from prison and life outside of prison before he dies. This paper argues that the opportunity for release must mean more than a probability that a child will be released before his death, and that it must include an opportunity for a meaningful life outside of prison (not just the opportunity to be released and then die on the outside). The paper further argues that life expectancy estimates cannot guide a court or a legislature in determining whether a sentence is or is not constitutional.