International Science Index
Understanding Innovation by Analyzing the Pillars of the Global Competitiveness Index
Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) prepared by World Economic Forum has become a benchmark in studying the competitiveness of countries and for understanding the factors that enable competitiveness. Innovation is a key pillar in competitiveness and has the unique property of enabling exponential economic growth. This paper attempts to analyze how the pillars comprising the Global Competitiveness Index affect innovation and whether GDP growth can directly affect innovation outcomes for a country. The key objective of the study is to identify areas on which governments of developing countries can focus policies and programs to improve their country’s innovativeness. We have compiled a panel data set for top innovating countries and large emerging economies called BRICS from 2007-08 to 2014-15 in order to find the significant factors that affect innovation. The results of the regression analysis suggest that government should make policies to improve labor market efficiency, establish sophisticated business networks, provide basic health and primary education to its people and strengthen the quality of higher education and training services in the economy. The achievements of smaller economies on innovation suggest that concerted efforts by governments can counter any size related disadvantage, and in fact can provide greater flexibility and speed in encouraging innovation.
Testing the Validity of Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle in BRICS Countries
The increase of capital mobility across emerging economies has become an interesting topic for many economic policy makers. The current study tests the validity of Feldstein–Horioka puzzle for 5 BRICS countries. The sample period of the study runs from 2001 to 2014. The study uses the following parameter estimates well known as the Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS), and Dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results of the study show that investment and savings are cointegrated in the long run. The parameters estimated using FMOLS and DOLS are 0.85 and 0.74, respectively. These results imply that policy makers within BRICS countries have to consider flexible monetary and fiscal policy instruments to influence the mobility of capital with the bloc.
Analysis and Control of Camera Type Weft Straightener
In general, fabric is heat-treated using a stenter machine in order to dry and fix its shape. It is important to shape before the heat treatment because it is difficult to revert back once the fabric is formed. To produce the product of right shape, camera type weft straightener has been applied recently to capture and process fabric images quickly. It is more powerful in determining the final textile quality rather than photo-sensor. Positioning in front of a stenter machine, weft straightener helps to spread fabric evenly and control the angle between warp and weft constantly as right angle by handling skew and bow rollers. To process this tricky procedure, the structural analysis should be carried out in advance, based on which, its control technology can be drawn. A structural analysis is to figure out the specific contact/slippage characteristics between fabric and roller. We already examined the applicability of camera type weft straightener to plain weave fabric and found its possibility and the specific working condition of machine and rollers. In this research, we aimed to explore another applicability of camera type weft straightener. Namely, we tried to figure out camera type weft straightener can be used for fabrics. To find out the optimum condition, we increased the number of rollers. The analysis is done by ANSYS software using Finite Element Analysis method. The control function is demonstrated by experiment. In conclusion, the structural analysis of weft straightener is done to identify a specific characteristic between roller and fabrics. The control of skew and bow roller is done to decrease the error of the angle between warp and weft. Finally, it is proved that camera type straightener can also be used for the special fabrics.
Surface Coating of Polyester Fabrics by Sol Gel Synthesized ZnO Particles
Zinc oxide particles were synthesized using the sol-gel method and dip coated on polyester fabric. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a single crystal phase of ZnO particles. Chemical characteristics of the polyester fabric surface were investigated using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Morphology of ZnO coated fabric was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After particle analysis, the aqueous ZnO solution resulted in a narrow size distribution at submicron levels. The deposit of ZnO on polyester fabrics yielded a homogeneous spread of spherical particles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results also affirmed the presence of ZnO particles on the polyester fabrics.
A Comparative Study on Air Permeability Properties of Multilayered Nonwoven Structures
Air permeability plays an important role for applications such as filtration, thermal and acoustic insulation. The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an attempt to investigate air permeability property of various combinations of nonwovens. The PROWHITE air permeability tester was used for the measurement of the air permeability of the samples in accordance with the relevant standards and a comparative study of the results were made. It was found that the fabric mass per unit area was closely related to the air-permeability. The air permeability decreased with the increase in mass per unit area. Additionally, the air permeability of nonwoven fabrics decreased with the increase in thickness. Moreover, air permeability of multilayered SMS nonwoven structures was lower than those of single layered ones.
Investigation on Flexural Behavior of Non-Crimp 3D Orthogonal Weave Carbon Composite Reinforcement
Non-crimp three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal carbon fabrics are one of the useful textiles reinforcements in composites. In this paper, flexural and bending properties of a carbon non-crimp 3D orthogonal woven reinforcement are experimentally investigated. The present study is focused on the understanding and measurement of the main bending parameters including flexural stress, strain, and modulus. For this purpose, the three-point bending test method is used and the load-displacement curves are analyzed. The influence of some weave's parameters such as yarn type, geometry of structure, and fiber volume fraction on bending behavior of non-crimp 3D orthogonal carbon fabric is investigated. The obtained results also represent a dataset for the simulation of flexural behavior of non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave carbon composite reinforcement.
Drop Impact Study on Flexible Superhydrophobic Surface Containing Micro-Nano Hierarchical Structures
Superhydrophobic surfaces are abundant in nature. Several surfaces such as wings of butterfly, legs of water strider, feet of gecko and the lotus leaf show extreme water repellence behaviour. Self-cleaning, stain-free fabrics, spill-resistant protective wears, drag reduction in micro-fluidic devices etc. are few applications of superhydrophobic surfaces. In order to design robust superhydrophobic surface, it is important to understand the interaction of water with superhydrophobic surface textures. In this work, we report a simple coating method for creating large-scale flexible superhydrophobic paper surface. The surface consists of multiple layers of silanized zirconia microparticles decorated with zirconia nanoparticles. Water contact angle as high as 159±10 and contact angle hysteresis less than 80 was observed. Drop impact studies on superhydrophobic paper surface were carried out by impinging water droplet and capturing its dynamics through high speed imaging. During the drop impact, the Weber number was varied from 20 to 80 by altering the impact velocity of the drop and the parameters such as contact time, normalized spread diameter were obtained. In contrast to earlier literature reports, we observed contact time to be dependent on impact velocity on superhydrophobic surface. Total contact time was split into two components as spread time and recoil time. The recoil time was found to be dependent on the impact velocity while the spread time on the surface did not show much variation with the impact velocity. Further, normalized spreading parameter was found to increase with increase in impact velocity.
Modelling the Behavior of Commercial and Test Textiles against Laundering Process by Statistical Assessment of Their Performance
Various exterior factors have perpetual effects on textile materials during wear, use and laundering in everyday life. In accordance with their frequency of use, textile materials are required to be laundered at certain intervals. The medium in which the laundering process takes place have inevitable detrimental physical and chemical effects on textile materials caused by the unique parameters of the process inherently existing. Connatural structures of various textile materials result in many different physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics. Because of their specific structures, these materials have different behaviors against several exterior factors. By modeling the behavior of commercial and test textiles as group-wise against laundering process, it is possible to disclose the relation in between these two groups of materials, which will lead to better understanding of their behaviors in terms of similarities and differences against the washing parameters of the laundering. Thus, the goal of the current research is to examine the behavior of two groups of textile materials as commercial textiles and as test textiles towards the main washing machine parameters during laundering process such as temperature, load quantity, mechanical action and level of water amount by concentrating on shrinkage, pilling, sewing defects, collar abrasion, the other defects other than sewing, whitening and overall properties of textiles. In this study, cotton fabrics were preferred as commercial textiles due to the fact that garments made of cotton are the most demanded products in the market by the textile consumers in daily life. Full factorial experimental set-up was used to design the experimental procedure. All profiles always including all of the commercial and the test textiles were laundered for 20 cycles by commercial home laundering machine to investigate the effects of the chosen parameters. For the laundering process, a modified version of ‘‘IEC 60456 Test Method’’ was utilized. The amount of detergent was altered as 0.5% gram per liter depending on varying load quantity levels. Datacolor 650®, EMPA Photographic Standards for Pilling Test and visual examination were utilized to test and characterize the textiles. Furthermore, in the current study the relation in between commercial and test textiles in terms of their performance was deeply investigated by the help of statistical analysis performed by MINITAB® package program modeling their behavior against the parameters of the laundering process. In the experimental work, the behaviors of both groups of textiles towards washing machine parameters were visually and quantitatively assessed in dry state.
Obtaining Composite Cotton Fabric by Cyclodextrin Grafting
Finishing is an important part of fabric processing with which a wide range of features are imparted to greige or colored fabrics for various end-uses. Especially, by the addition or impartation of nano-scaled particles to the fabric structure composite fabrics, a kind of composite materials can be acquired. Composite materials, generally shortened as composites or in other words composition materials, are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more component materials with significantly different physical, mechanical or chemical characteristics remaining separate and distinctive at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the end product structure. Therefore, the technique finishing which is one of the fundamental methods to be applied on fabrics for obtainment of composite fabrics with many functionalities was used in the current study with the same purpose. However, regardless of the finishing materials applied, the efficient life of finished product on offering desired feature is low, since the durability of finishes on the material is limited. Any increase in durability of these finishes on textiles would enhance the life of use for textiles, which will result in happier users. Therefore, in this study, since higher durability was desired for the finishing materials fixed on the fabrics, nano-scaled hollow structured cyclodextrins were chemically imparted by grafting to the structure of conventional cotton fabrics by the help of finishing technique in order to be fixed permanently. By this way, a processed and functionalized base fabric having potential to be treated in the subsequent processes with many different finishing agents and nanomaterials could be obtained. Henceforth, this fabric can be used as a multi-functional fabric due to the encapturing ability of cyclodextrins to molecules/particles via physical/chemical means. In this study, scoured and rinsed woven bleached plain weave 100% cotton fabrics were utilized because textiles made of cotton are the most demanded textile products in the textile market by the textile consumers in daily life. Cotton fabric samples were immersed in treating baths containing β-cyclodextrin and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and to reduce the curing temperature the catalyst sodium hypophosphite monohydrate was used. All impregnated fabric samples were pre-dried. The reaction of grafting was performed in dry state. The treated and cured fabric samples were rinsed with warm distilled water and dried. The samples were dried for 4 h and weighed before and after finishing and rinsing. Stability and durability of β-cyclodextrins on fabric surface against external factors such as washing as well as strength of functionalized fabric in terms of tensile and tear strength were tested. Presence and homogeneity of distribution of β-cyclodextrins on fabric surface were characterized.
Innovation Environments: A Comparison between Mexico and BRICS
To give a general view of the innovation environments is the aim of this paper, we pretend to make an analysis between Mexico and BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa- countries belonging to the group of five major emerging economies). The comparison takes by reference a set of various indicators that directly or indirectly affect innovation in a positive or negative way. Firstly, a research to obtain the values of each of the indicators was conducted, considering the main primary sources, then, within a set of radial charts is presented the resulting values of each nation and a comparison between them. Finally, a description of the gaps between Mexico and the BRICS were established, including the areas of opportunity for Mexico
Learning Materials for Enhancing Sustainable Colour Fading Process of Fashion Products
This study examines the results of colour fading of cotton fabric by plasma-induced ozone treatment, with an aim to provide learning materials for fashion designers when designing colour fading effects in fashion products. Cotton knitted fabrics were dyed with red reactive dye with a colour depth of 1.5% and were subjected to ozone generated by a commercially available plasma machine for colour fading. The plasma-induced ozone treatment was conducted with different parameters: (i) air concentration = 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%; (ii) water content in fabric = 35% and 45%, and (iii) treatment time = 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes. Finally, the colour properties of the plasma–induced ozone treated fabric were measured by spectrophotometer under illuminant D65 to obtain the CIE L*, CIE a* and CIE b* values.
Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Application in Wrinkle-Resistant Finishing of Cotton Fabric
Cotton fibre is a commonly-used natural fibre because of its good fibre strength, high moisture absorption behaviour and minimal static problems. However, one of the main drawbacks of cotton fibre is wrinkling after washing, which is recently overcome by wrinkle-resistant treatment. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) could improve the wrinkle-resistant properties of cotton fibre. Although the BTCA process is an effective method for wrinkle resistant application of cotton fabrics, reduced fabric strength was observed after treatment. Therefore, this paper would explore the use of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment under different discharge powers as a pretreatment process to enhance the application of BTCA process on cotton fabric without generating adverse effect. The aim of this study is to provide learning information to the users to know how the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be incorporated in textile finishing process with positive impact.
Crafting of Paper Cutting Techniques for Embellishment of Fashion Textiles
Craft and fashion have always been interlinked. The combination of both often gives stunning results. The present study introduces ‘Paper Cutting Craft Techniques’ like the Japanese –Kirigami, Mexican –PapelPicado, German –Scherenschnitte, Polish –Wycinankito in textiles to develop innovative and novel design structures as embellishments and ornamentation. The project studies various ways of using these paper cutting techniques to obtain interesting features and delicate design patterns on fabrics. While paper has its advantages and related uses, it is fragile rigid and thus not appropriate for clothing. Fabric is sturdy, flexible, dimensionally stable and washable. In the present study, the cut out techniques develop creative design motifs and patterns to give an inventive and unique appeal to the fabrics. The beauty and fascination of lace in garments have always given them a nostalgic charm. Laces with their intricate and delicate complexity in combination with other materials add a feminine touch to a garment and give it a romantic, mysterious appeal. Various textured and decorative effects through fabric manipulation are experimented along with the use of paper cutting craft skills as an innovative substitute for developing lace or “Broderie Anglaise” effects on textiles. A number of assorted fabric types with varied textures were selected for the study. Techniques to avoid fraying and unraveling of the design cut fabrics were introduced. Fabrics were further manipulated by use of interesting prints with embossed effects on cut outs. Fabric layering in combination with assorted techniques such as cutting of folded fabric, printing, appliqué, embroidery, crochet, braiding, weaving added a novel exclusivity to the fabrics. The fabrics developed by these innovative methods were then tailored into garments. The study thus tested the feasibility and practicability of using these fabrics by designing a collection of evening wear garments based on the theme ‘Nostalgia’. The prototypes developed were complemented by designing fashion accessories with the crafted fabrics. Prototypes of accessories add interesting features to the study. The adaptation and application of this novel technique of paper cutting craft on textiles can be an innovative start for a new trend in textile and fashion industry. The study anticipates that this technique will open new avenues in the world of fashion to incorporate its use commercially.
Study of Structure and Properties of Polyester/Carbon Blends for Technical Applications
Textile substrates are endowed with flexibility and ease of making–up, but are non-conductors of electricity. Conductive materials like carbon can be incorporated into textile structures to make flexible conductive materials. Such conductive textiles find applications as electrostatic discharge materials, electromagnetic shielding materials and flexible materials to carry current or signals. This work focuses on use of carbon fiber as conductor of electricity. Carbon fibers in staple or tow form can be incorporated in textile yarn structure to conduct electricity. The paper highlights the process for development of these conductive yarns of polyester/carbon using Friction spinning (DREF) as well as ring spinning. The optimized process parameters for processing hybrid structure of polyester with carbon tow on DREF spinning and polyester with carbon staple fiber using ring spinning have been presented. The studies have been linked to highlight the electrical conductivity of the developed yarns. Further, the developed yarns have been incorporated as weft in fabric and their electrical conductivity has been evaluated. The paper demonstrates the structure and properties of fabrics developed from such polyester/carbon blend yarns and their suitability as electrically dissipative fabrics.
Constructing a New World Order through a Narrative of Infrastructural Development: The Case of the BRICS
The aim of this research is to understand how the
emerging power bloc BRICS employs infrastructure development
narratives to construct a new world order. BRICS is an international
body consisting of five emerging countries that collaborate on
economic and political issues: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South
Africa. This study explores the projection of infrastructure
development narratives through an analysis of BRICS’ attention to
infrastructure investment and financing, its support of the New
Partnership on African Development and the establishment of the
New Development Bank in Shanghai. The theory of Strategic
Narratives is used to explore BRICS’ commitment to infrastructure
development and to distinguish three layers: system narratives
(BRICS as a global actor to propose development reform), identity
narratives (BRICS as a collective identity joining efforts to act upon
development aspirations) and issue narratives (BRICS committed to a
range of issues of which infrastructure development is prominent).
The methodology that is employed is a narrative analysis of BRICS’
official documents, media statements, and website imagery. A
comparison of these narratives illuminates tensions at the three layers
and among the five member states. Identifying tensions among
development infrastructure narratives provides an indication of how
policymaking for infrastructure development could be improved.
Subsequently, it advances BRICS’ ability to act as a global actor to
construct a new world order.
Experimental Characterization of Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Textile Woven Fabric
This paper presents an experimental characterization of the anisotropic mechanical behavior of 4 textile woven fabrics with different weaves (Twill 3, Plain, Twill4 and Satin 4) by off-axis tensile testing. These tests are applied according seven directions oriented by 15° increment with respect to the warp direction. Fixed and articulated jaws are used. Analysis of experimental results is done through global (Effort/Elongation curves) and local scales. Global anisotropy was studied from the Effort/Elongation curves: shape, breaking load (Frup), tensile elongation (EMT), tensile energy (WT) and linearity index (LT). Local anisotropy was studied from the measurement of strain tensor components in the central area of the specimen as a function of testing orientation and effort: longitudinal strain ɛL, transverse strain ɛT and shearing ɛLT. The effect of used jaws is also analyzed.
Utilization of Nanoclay to Reinforce Flax Fabric-Geopolymer Composites
Geopolymer composites reinforced with flax fabrics
and nanoclay are fabricated and studied for physical and mechanical
properties using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform
Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscope
(SEM). Nanoclay platelets at a weight of 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% were
added to geopolymer pastes. Nanoclay at 2.0 wt.% was found to
improve density and decrease porosity while improving flexural
strength and post-peak toughness. A microstructural analysis
indicated that nanoclay behaves as filler and as an activator
supporting geopolymeric reaction while producing a higher content
geopolymer gel improving the microstructure of binders. The process
enhances adhesion between the geopolymer matrix and flax fibres.
Potential of Henna Leaves as Dye and Its Fastness Properties on Fabric
Despite the wide spread use of synthetic dyes, natural
dyes are still exploited and used to enhance its inherent aesthetic
qualities as a major material for beautification of the body. Centuries
before the discovery of synthetic dyes, natural dyes were the only
source of dye open to mankind. Dyes are extracted from plant -
leaves, roots and barks, insect secretions, and minerals. However,
research findings have made it clear that of all, plants- leaves, roots,
barks or flowers are the most explored and exploited in which henna
(Lawsonia innermis L.) is one of those plants. Experiment has also
shown that henna is used in body painting in conjunction with an
alkaline (Ammonium Sulphate) as a fixing agent. This of course
gives a clue that if colour derived from henna is properly
investigated, it may not only be used for body decoration but
possibly, may have affinity to fiber substrate. This paper investigates
the dyeing potentials – dye ability and fastness qualities of henna dye
extracts on cotton and linen fibers using mordants like ammonium
sulphate and other alkalis (hydrosulphate and caustic soda, potash,
common salt, potassium alum). Hot and cold water and ethanol
solvent were used in the extraction of the dye to investigate the most
effective method, dye ability, and fastness qualities of these extracts
under room temperature. The results of the experiment show that
cotton have a high rate of dye intake than other fiber. On a similar
note, the colours obtained depend most on the solvent used. In
conclusion, hot water extraction appears more effective. While the
colours obtained from ethanol and both cold hot methods of
extraction range from light to dark yellow, light green to army green
and to some extent shades of brown hues.
Quality Approaches for Mass-Produced Fashion: A Study in Malaysian Garment Manufacturing
The garment manufacturing industry involves
sequential processes that are subjected to uncontrollable variations.
The industry depends on the skill of labour in handling the varieties
of fabrics and accessories, machines, as well as complicated sewing
operation. Due to these reasons, garment manufacturers have created
systems to monitor and to control the quality of the products on a
regular basis by conducting quality approaches to minimize variation.
With that, the aim of this research has been to ascertain the quality
approaches deployed by Malaysian garment manufacturers in three
key areas - quality systems and tools; quality control and types of
inspection; as well as sampling procedures chosen for garment
inspection. Besides, the focus of this research was to distinguish the
quality approaches adopted by companies that supplied finished
garments to both domestic and international markets. Feedback from
each company representative has been obtained via online survey,
which comprised of five sections and 44 questions on the
organizational profile and the quality approaches employed in the
garment industry. As a result, the response rate was 31%. The results
revealed that almost all companies have established their own
mechanism of process control by conducting a series of quality
inspections for daily production, either it was formally set up or
otherwise. In addition, quality inspection has been the predominant
quality control activity in the garment manufacturing, while the level
of complexity of these activities was substantially dictated by the
customers. Moreover, AQL-based sampling was utilized by
companies dealing with exports, whilst almost all the companies that
only concentrated on the domestic market were comfortable using
their own sampling procedures for garment inspection. Hence, this
research has provided insights into the implementation of a number
of quality approaches that were perceived as important and useful in
the garment manufacturing sector, which is truly labour-intensive.
Novel CFRP Adhesive Joints and Structures for Offshore Application
Novel wind-lens turbine designs can augment power
output. Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is used
to form large and complex structures from a Carbon Fiber Reinforced
Polymer (CFRP) composite. Typically, wind-lens turbine structures
are fabricated in segments, and then bonded to form the final structure.
This paper introduces five new adhesive joints, divided into two
groups: one is constructed between dry carbon and CFRP fabrics, and
the other is constructed with two dry carbon fibers. All joints and
CFRP fabrics were made in our laboratory using VARTM
manufacturing techniques. Specimens were prepared for tensile testing
to measure joint performance. The results showed that the second
group of joints achieved a higher tensile strength than the first group.
On the other hand, the tensile fracture behavior of the two groups
showed the same pattern of crack originating near the joint ends
followed by crack propagation until fracture.
Wash Fastness of Textile Fibers Dyed with Natural Dye from Eucalyptus Wood Steaming Waste
Natural dyes are gaining interest due their expected
low risk to human health and to the environment. In this study, the
wash fastness of a natural coloring matter from the liquid waste
produced in the steam treatment of eucalyptus wood in textile fabrics
was investigated. Specifically, eucalyptus wood extract was used to
dye cotton, nylon and wool in an exhaust dyeing process without the
addition of the traditional mordanting agents and then submitted to
wash fastness analysis. The resulting dyed fabrics were evaluated for
color fastness. It was found that wash fastness of dyed fabrics was
very good to cotton and excellent to nylon and wool.
Extraction, Characterization and Application of Natural Dyes from the Fresh Rind of Index Colour 5 Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.)
This study was to explore and utilize the fresh rind of
mangosteen Index Colour 5 as an upcoming raw material for the
production of natural dyes. Rind from the fresh mangosteen Index
Colour 5 was utilized to extract the dyes. The established extracts
were experimented on silk fabrics via three types of mordanting and
dyeing procedures; pre-mordanting, simultaneous mordanting and
post-mordanting. As a result, the applications of the freeze-drying
methodology and mechanizable equipment have helped to produce
excellent range of natural colours. Silk fabric treated simultaneously
with mordanting and dyeing with extract dye Index Colour 5
produced a brilliant shade of the red colour and the colour from this
index is also discovered sensitive to light and washing during the
fastness tests. The preliminary evaluation and instrumentation
analysis allowed us to examine whether the application of different
mordanting and dyeing procedures with the same extract samples and
concentrations affected the colours and shades of the fabric samples.
Investigation of Moisture Management Properties of Cotton and Blended Knitted Fabrics
The main idea of this work is to investigate the effect
of knitted fabrics characteristics on moisture management properties.
Wetting and transport properties of single jersey, Rib 1&1 and
English Rib fabrics made out of cotton and blended Cotton/Polyester
yarns were studied. The dynamic water sorption of fabrics was
investigated under same isothermal and terrestrial conditions at
20±2°C-65±4% by using the Moisture Management Tester (MMT)
which can be used to quantitatively measure liquid moisture transfer
in one step in a fabric in multidirections: Absorption rate, moisture
absorbing time of the fabric's inner and outer surfaces, one-way
transportation capability, the spreading/drying rate, the speed of
liquid moisture spreading on fabric's inner and outer surfaces are
measured, recorded and discussed. The results show that fabric’s
composition and knit’s structure have a significant influence on those
Wicking and Evaporation of Liquids in Knitted Fabrics: Analytic Solution of Capillary Rise Restrained by Gravity and Evaporation
Wicking and evaporation of water in porous knitted fabrics is investigated by combining experimental and analytical approaches: The standard wicking model from Lucas and Washburn is enhanced to account for evaporation and gravity effects. The goal is to model the effect of gravity and evaporation on wicking using simple analytical expressions and investigate the influence of fabrics geometrical parameters, such as porosity and thickness on evaporation impact on maximum reachable height values. The results show that fabric properties have a significant influence on evaporation effect. In this paper, an experimental study of determining water kinetics from different knitted fabrics were gravimetrically investigated permitting the measure of the mass and the height of liquid rising in fabrics in various atmospheric conditions. From these measurements, characteristic pore parameters (capillary radius and permeability) can be determined.
Decontamination of Chromium Containing Ground Water by Adsorption Using Chemically Modified Activated Carbon Fabric
Chromium in the environment is considered as one of the most toxic elements probably next only to mercury and arsenic. It is acutely toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in the environment. Chromium contamination of soil and underground water due to industrial activities is a very serious problem in several parts of India covering Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh etc. Functionally modified Activated Carbon Fabrics (ACF) offer targeted chromium removal from drinking water and industrial effluents. Activated carbon fabric is a light weight adsorbing material with high surface area and low resistance to fluid flow. We have investigated surface modification of ACF using various acids in the laboratory through batch as well as through continuous flow column experiments with a view to develop the optimum conditions for chromium removal. Among the various acids investigated, phosphoric acid modified ACF gave best results with a removal efficiency of 95% under optimum conditions. Optimum pH was around 2 – 4 with 2 hours contact time. Continuous column experiments with an effective bed contact time (EBCT) of 5 minutes indicated that breakthrough occurred after 300 bed volumes. Adsorption data followed a Freundlich isotherm pattern. Nickel adsorbs preferentially and sulphate reduces chromium adsorption by 50%. The ACF could be regenerated up to 52.3% using 3 M NaOH under optimal conditions. The process is simple, economical, energy efficient and applicable to industrial effluents and drinking water.
Effect of Non-Crimp Fabric Structure on Mechanical Properties of Laminates
The textile preforms play a key role in providing the mechanical properties and gives the idea about selection parameter of preforms to improve the quality and performance of laminates. The main objectives of this work are to study the effect of non-crimp fabric preform structure in final properties of laminates. It has been observed that the multi-axial preform give better mechanical properties of laminates as compared to woven and biaxial fabrics. This study investigated the effect of different non-crimp glass preform structure on tensile strength, bending and compression properties of glass laminates. The different woven, bi-axial and multi-axial fabrics with similar GSM used to manufacture the laminates using polyester resin. The structural and mechanical properties of preform and laminates were studied using standard methods. It has been observed that the glass fabric geometry, including type of weaves, warps and filling density and number of layer plays significant role in deciding mechanical properties of laminates.
An Investigation on the Sandwich Panels with Flexible and Toughened Adhesives under Flexural Loading
The material selection in the design of the sandwich
structures is very crucial aspect because of the positive or negative
influences of the base materials to the mechanical properties of the
entire panel. In the literature, it was presented that the selection of the
skin and core materials plays very important role on the behavior of
the sandwich. Beside this, the use of the correct adhesive can make
the whole structure to show better mechanical results and behavior.
In the present work, the static three-point bending tests were
performed on the sandwiches having an aluminum alloy foam core,
the skins made of three different types of fabrics and two different
commercial adhesives (flexible polyurethane and toughened epoxy
based) at different values of support span distances by aiming the
analyses of their flexural performance in terms of absorbed energy,
peak force values and collapse mechanisms. The main results of the
flexural loading are: force-displacement curves obtained after the
bending tests, peak force and absorbed energy values, collapse
mechanisms and adhesion quality. The experimental results presented
that the sandwiches with epoxy based toughened adhesive and the
skins made of S-Glass Woven fabrics indicated the best adhesion
quality and mechanical properties. The sandwiches with toughened
adhesive exhibited higher peak force and energy absorption values
compared to the sandwiches with flexible adhesive. The use of these
sandwich structures can lead to a weight reduction of the transport
vehicles, providing an adequate structural strength under operating
Investigation of Heating Behaviour of E-textile Structures
By textile science incorporating with electronic
industry, developed textile products start to take part in different
areas such as industry, military, space, medical etc. for health,
protection, defense, communication and automation. Electronic
textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that contain electronics and
interconnections with them. In this study, two types of base yarns
(cotton and acrylic) and three types of conductive steel yarns with
different linear resistance values (14Ω/m, 30Ω/m, 70Ω/m) were used
to investigate the effect of base yarn type and linear resistance of
conductive yarns on thermal behavior of e-textile structures. Thermal
behavior of samples was examined by thermal camera.
Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Properties of Viscose Single Jersey Fabrics
The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an
attempt to investigate effects of different drying methods (line dry
and tumble dry) on viscose single jersey fabrics knitted with ring
Flexural Performance of the Sandwich Structures Having Aluminum Foam Core with Different Thicknesses
The structures obtained with the use of sandwich
technologies combine low weight with high energy absorbing
capacity and load carrying capacity. Hence, there is a growing and
markedly interest in the use of sandwiches with aluminum foam core
because of very good properties such as flexural rigidity and energy
absorption capability. In the current investigation, the static threepoint
bending tests were carried out on the sandwiches with
aluminum foam core and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP)
skins at different values of support span distances aiming the analyses
of their flexural performance. The influence of the core thickness and
the GFRP skin type was reported in terms of peak load and energy
absorption capacity. For this purpose, the skins with two different
types of fabrics which have same thickness value and the aluminum
foam core with two different thicknesses were bonded with a
commercial polyurethane based flexible adhesive in order to combine
the composite sandwich panels. The main results of the bending tests
are: force-displacement curves, peak force values, absorbed energy,
collapse mechanisms and the effect of the support span length and
core thickness. The results of the experimental study showed that the
sandwich with the skins made of S-Glass Woven fabrics and with the
thicker foam core presented higher mechanical values such as load
carrying and energy absorption capacities. The increment of the
support span distance generated the decrease of the mechanical
values for each type of panels, as expected, because of the inverse
proportion between the force and span length. The most common
failure types of the sandwiches are debonding of the lower skin and
the core shear. The obtained results have particular importance for
applications that require lightweight structures with a high capacity
of energy dissipation, such as the transport industry (automotive,
aerospace, shipbuilding and marine industry), where the problems of
collision and crash have increased in the last years.